sum
Morphological Analysis
Wordclass: Adjective, Pronoun
Related §§ in Wright's OE Grammar:
In the OE text, the length is:indicated by acute accentsindicated by macronsnot indicated.
sum
indef. prn. Some. I. one of many, part of a whole, used substantively and I. governing in the genitive a. a noun or pronoun, cf. the Gothic use of sums Wæs ic ðara monna sum I was one of the men, Chart. Th. 170, 7. Mé tó aldorbanan weorðeþ wráðra sum, Cd. Th. 63, 18; Gen. 1034. Ðé wile beorna sum him geágnian, 109, 26; Gen. 1828. Ðæt is wundra sum ðara ðe geworhte wuldres aldor, 155, 14; Gen. 2572: 199, 28; Exod. 345: 200, 15; Exod. 357. Wæs Seón sum ðara kynincga, Ps. Th. 134, 11. Swá swá úre sum quasi unus ex nobis, Gen. 3, 22. Wæs hira Matheus sum, Andr. Kmbl. 22; An. 11. He cýþde on sumre his bóca, Bt. 18, 2; Fox 64, 9. Hí woldon cuman tó sumere ðara stówa, 34, 7; Fox 144, 9. Anlíc ðara his þegna sumum, 37, 1; Fox 186, 12. Fýr cymþ sume ðissa hærfesta (cf. the phrase some or one of these days ), Wulfst. 205, 6. Manna cynnes sumne besyrwan, Beo. Th. 1430; B. 713. b. a cardinal numeral, α. one of a company containing the number Iacob férde hundseofontigra sum omnes animae domus Jacob fuere septuaginta, Gen. 46, 27. Hé ácígde syfone ... eode eahta sum, Beo. Th. 6237; B. 3123. Hé twelfa sum hire áð sealde (secum acceptis undecim comparibus suis, p. 205), Chart. Th. 203, 2: L. Ath. i. 11; Th. i. 206, 3 note. β. one with a company containing the number Hannibal óþfleáh feówera sum Annibal cum quatuor equitibus confugit, Ors. 4, 10; Swt. 202, 16. Gange hé feówra sum tó and beó him fífta, L. Eth. ii. 4; Th. i. 286, 18. Hé com twelfa sum cum duodecim lectis militibus venientem, Bd. 3, 1; S. 523, 31. Wæs Agustinus feówertigra sum socii ejus viri ut ferunt ferme quadraginta, 1, 25; S. 486, 23. Com seofona sum (cf. ðæt deófol genam mid him óþre seofon deóflo, St. And. 18, 7), Andr. Kmbl. 2623; An. 1313. Gewát xii-a sum ... se wæs on ðam ðreáte þreotteóða secg, Beo, Th. 4793; B. 2401. Fífténa sum (cf. 3287; B. 1641, where Beowulf's companions, after one has been slain, are said to be fourteen), Beo. Th. 420; B. 207. γ. uncertain Ðæt hé syxa sum ofslóge syxtig, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 18, 7. 2. followed by of Sumne of ðám wítegum unum de prophetis, Mk. Skt. 8, 28. Ðá geneálǽhton sume of Saducéum, Lk. Skt. 20, 27. 3. where the whole, of which the object denoted by sum is part, is to be inferred from the context Sigon ðá tó slǽpe: sum (one of the sleepers) sáre angeald ǽfenreste, Beo. Th. 2507; B. 1251. Habbaþ wé micel ǽrende ne sceal ðǽr dyrne sum (any of the errands) wesan, 548; B. 271. Sumne (one of the creatures on the mere) Geáta leód feores getwǽfde, 2869; B. 1432. Sume (some of the thanes) ðǽr bidon, 806; B. 400. 4. where the word is quite indefinite, some one Sum tó lyt hafaþ, Salm. Kmbl. 688; Sal. 343. Ic sceal swelgan of sumes bósme, Exon. Th. 395, 30; Rä. 15, 15. 5. where two members or two classes of the same group, or two parts of the same whole, are contrasted, one ... another, some ... some Ðonne lufaþ sum ðæt sum elles hwæt one loves that, another something else, Bt. 33, 2; Fox 122, 24. Hí gaderodon sum máre sum læsse alius plus, alius minus, Ex. 16, 17. Eorle monigum Dryhten áre gesceáwaþ, sumum weána dǽl, Exon. Th. 379, 17; Deór. 34. Sum heó hire on handum bær, sum hire æt heortan læg, Cd. Th. 40, 8-9; Gen. 636. Ánra gehwylc hæfþ syndrige gyfe fram Gode sume furðor ðonne some alius sic, alius vero sic, R. Ben. 64, 10. Sume hí beóton sume hí ofslógon quosdam caedentes, alias uero occidentes, Mk. Skt. 12, 5. Sió ungelícnes hira gearnunga hié tiéhþ sume behindan sume, Past. 17; Swt. 107, 20. 6. where a series of individuals or of groups or of parts is enumerated Sum feóll wið ðone weg ... sum feóll ofer stánscyligean ... sum feóll on þornas ... sum feóll on gód land; án brohte þrítigfealdne, sum syxtigfealdne, sum hundfealdne, Mk. Skt. 4, 4-8: Exon. Th. 42, 6-30; Cri. 668-680. Is se finta ... sum brún, sum basu, sum splottum beseted, 218, 17; Ph. 296. Ánum hé sealde fíf pund, sumum twá, sumum án, Mt. Kmbl. 25, 15. Ðá sende hé his þeów ... hé sende óðerne ... eft hé sumne sende, Mk. Skt. 12, 2-5. Sume hí sǽdon ðæt hió sceolde forsceoppan tó león ... sume sceoldan bión eforas ... sume wurdon tó wulfan ... sume wurdon tó ðam deórcynne ðe mon hátte tigris, Bt. 38, 1; Fox 194, 32 sqq.: 34, 7;Fox 144, 7-9: Mt. Kmbl. 16, 14. II. as an adjective (i) with a noun with or without a qualifying adjective, a certain, some, see also 5. Sum man (homo quidam ) hæfde twegen suna, Lk. Skt. 15, 11. Sum ǽgleáw man quidam legis peritus, 10, 25. Sum wítega of ðám ealdum, 9, 19: Bd. 3, 2; S. 524, 39. Ðeáh sum broc and sumu wiðerweardnes hiera forwiernþ, Past. 50; Swt. 391. 35. Wæs him gegearwod sum heard harmscearu, Cd. Th. 28, 7; Gen. 432. Sum wæs ǽhtwelig æþeles cynnes ríce geréfa, Exon. Th. 243, 29; Jul. 18. On his heortan cwæð unhýdig sum dixit insipiens in corde suo. Ps. Th. 52, 1. Sumes hundredmannes þeówa, Lk. Skt 7, 2. Sumes þinges wana, Bt. 34, 9; Fox 146, 18. Weorð forhwerfed ǽlc tó sumum dióre, 38, 1; Fox 196, 3. Hé com tó sumre stówe, Gen. 28, 11. For sumere twýrǽdnesse on cwertern ásend, Lk. Skt. 23, 19. (1 a) where two members of the same group are contrasted (some ... other ) :-- Sume tunglu habbaþ scyrtran hwyrft, ðonne sume habban, Bt. 39, 3; Fox 214, 17. Sume láreówas sindon beteran ðonne sume, Homl. Th. ii. 48, 16. 2. with a pronoun where later English would use some of Hé gebád mid sumum ðæm fultume, Ors 3, 10; Swt. 140, 20. Lǽfdon hig hit sume quidam ex eis, Ex. 16, 20. Sume hí gelýfdon on deáde entas, Homl. Th. i. 366, 21. Sume gé (quidam ex vobis ) ne gelýfaþ, Jn. Skt. 6, 64. Sume ða bóceras quidam de scribis, Mt. Kmbl. 12, 38. Ða téð hié brohton sume, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 18, 1. Ða sume wé nú gýmdon, Bd. 4, 7; S. 574. 27. 3. with oðer Sum óðer wítega, Homl. Th. i. 364, 18. Hé nales tó ídelnysse swá sume óþre ac tó gewinne on ðæt mynster eode, Bd. 4, 3; S. 567, 27. 4. with words denoting measure, some as still used with numerals, one; the use of án, and in later English of the indefinite article with numerals, may be compared with this use of sum 'Ásend him twá scrúd and sum pund.' Se ðegen him andwyrde: 'Genim feówer scrúd and twá pund, Homl. Th. i. 400, 19. Genim ðysse wyrte sumne (one ) gripan, Lchdm. i. 184, 18. Ðá gegaderedon hí sum hund scipa, and fóron súð ymbútan and sum feówertig scipa norþ ymbútan, Chr. 894; Erl. 91, 4-6. Hié besǽton ðæt weorc útan, sume twegen dagas, Erl. 93, 9. Ðá wǽron hí sume tén geár on ðam gewinne, Bt. 38, 1; Fox 194, 7. Hý gán .xii. sume (twelfa sum, MS. B.), L. Ath. i. 11; Th. i. 206, 3. (4 a) where the number is indefinite, some :-- Ðá se Aulixes tó ðam gefiohte fór, ðá hæfde hé sume hundred scipa, Bt. 38, 1; Fox 194, 7. 5. adverbially or in adverbial phrases Se biscop is þeáh geset sumes (in some degree ) tó máran bletsunge ðonne se mæssepreóst sý, L. Ælfc. P. 36; Th. ii. 378, 20. Sumes onlíce swá velut, Exon. Th. 214, 21; Ph. 242: Met. 8, 47. Swíðe gelíce, sumes hwæðre þeáh ungelíce (cf. the corresponding prose on sumum þingum ungelíce, Bt. 33. 4; Fox 128, 26), 20, 54. Sió eorðe hit helt and be sumum dǽle swilgþ, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 130, 5: Met. 20, 96. Seó hæfþ sume dǽle (cf. som del in Chaucer) læssan leáf, Lchdm. i. 144, 13. Æt sumum cyrre once, on one occasion, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 17, 7: Cd. Th. 298, 25; Sat. 538. Sume síþe, Exon. Th. 20, 16; Cri. 318. Sumera ðinga eáðelícor in some respects easier, Homl. Th. i. 236, 11. [Goth. sums: O. Sax. O. Frs. O. H. Ger. sum: Icel. sumr.]
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