þegen
Morphological Analysis
Wordclass: Noun
Gender: Masculine
Related §§ in Wright's OE Grammar:
In the OE text, the length is:indicated by acute accentsindicated by macronsnot indicated.
þegen
þegn, þeng, þén, es; m. I. a servant, one who does service for another Þén minister, Wrt. Voc. i. 82, 24. Swá hwylc swá wyle betweox eów beón yldra. sý hé eówer þén (minister ), Mt. Kmbl. 20, 26: 23, 11. Ðá bæd hé his ðeng (ministrum ), ðæt hé him stówe gegearwode. Ðá wundrade se ðeng, Bd. 4, 24; S. 598, 29. Geleáffull ðegn (esne, Rush.: þeów, W. S.) fidelis servus, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 24, 45, 46. Ðá þénas ðe ðæt wæter hlódon, Jn. Skt. 2, 9. II. where the service is of a public or official character, an officer, minister Þegn lictor, Wrt. Voc. ii. 93, 10: 52, 59. Ðe læs se ðéma ðé sylle ðam þéne (ðegne, Lind.: dægne, Rush.), Mt. Kmbl. 5, 25. Ða weorcgeréfan and ða þénas (praefecti operum et exactores ) cwǽdon tó ðam folce: 'Pharao být, ðæt eów mann ne sylle leng nán cef,' Ex. 5, 10. Ða þeówas and ða þegnas serui et ministei, Jn. Skt. 18, 18. Þegna lictorum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 84, 24: 52, 41. Ábeád þeódcyning þegnum sínum, ombihtscealcum, Cd. Th. 112, 12; Gen. 1869. Ða ealdras sendon hyra þénas, ðæt hig woldon hine gefón, Jn. Skt. 7, 32. Sangeras and ntæssepreóstas and manigfealdlíce ciricean þegnas, Blickl. Homl. 207, 32. II a. figurative :--- III. where the service is military, a soldier Án Ueriatuses þegn unus ex iis (one of the victorious Lusitanians), Ors. 5, 2; Swt. 216, 21. Þa þénas (ðegnas, Lind. Rush.) milites, Jn. Skt. 19, 2. Ðá hét hé his ðegnas (milites) hine sécan ... 'Ðone forhycgend úra goda ðú mé helan woldest swýþor ðonne mínum ðegnum (militibus ) secgean,' Bd. 1, 7; S. 477, 7-20. Hí sealdon ðám þegenum (militibus ) micyl feoh, Mt. Kmbl. 28, 13. Ic hæbbe þegnas (ðeignas, Lind.) under mé habens sub me milites, 8, 9. IV. a follower of a great man, a retainer Þegn, gesíþa cliens, i. socius, Wrt. Voc. ií. 131, 70. Thegn, degn, þegn adsaeculam, Txts. 42, 101. Þegn, Wrt. Voc. ii. 4, 43. Ðæs ðegenes lof is ðæs hláfordes wurðmynt, Homl. Th. ii. 562, 6. Ðá wæs ðǽrinne Dauid mid his monnum. Ðá cleopedon his ðegnas him tó and hine lǽrdon ðæt hé hine ofslóge illic cum viris suis Dauid inerat, cum eum viri sui ad feriendum Saul accenderent, Past. 28; Swt. 197, 17. Arás se ríca (Beowulf ), ymb hine rinc manig, þegna heáp, Beo. Th. 805; B. 400. Þéna, cnihta, forspillendra þéna parasitorum, incniht parasitus, Hpt. Gl. 504, 18-21. Þénum parasitis, incnihttum clientibus, 514, 52-54. Ðegnum pedisequis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 84, 75. IV a. figurative :-- Ðúú V. a follower of a teacher, a disciple Ióhannes, se deóra þegn, Blickl. Homl. 67, 22. His þegnaslǽddon him tó ðone eosol, 71, 5: 15, 13. On Sancte Petres naman, Cristes ðegnes, 205, 14. Ðeignas his (his discipuli Ō his þegnas, Rush.) discipuli ejus, Mt. Kmbl. Lind, 5, 1. Cuédon tó ðeignum his, 9, 11. Ðegnum, 10: Jn. Skt. Lind. Rush. 18, 19. V a. in poetry, borrowing the terms of war :-- Sint geþreáde þegnas míne (St. Andrew's disciples ), geonge gúðrincas, Andr. Kmbl. 782; An. 391. VI. one engaged in a king's or queen's service, whether in the household or in the country, a thane. The word in this case seems gradually to acquire a technical meaning, and to become a term denoting a class (v. þegen-riht, -wer), containing, however, several degrees. To illustrate the wider sense in which the word could be used, when the þegen is spoken of in relation to the king, the following passages may be cited. In the Chronicle an. 897 'manige ðara sélestena cynges þéna' includes two bishops and three aldermen, as well as a cynges þegn and a cynges horsþegn. In a charter Cnut greets 'ealle míne þegnas, twelfhynde and twihynde' (the twihynde man is a ceorl: cf. too, 'ealne his leódscype, twelfhynde and twybhnde,' Chart. Erl. 229, 19), Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iv. 9, 30. The word seems general, too, in the passage, 'Weorðscipes wyrþe ǽlc be his mǽðe, eorl and ceorl, þegen and þeóden,' L. R. 1; Th. i. 190, 13. The more limited sense seems to belong to the word in the following Gif þegen geþeáh ðæt hé wearð tó eorle, L. R. 5; Th. i. 192, 7. Cf. §§ 2, 6; and see L. In. 45, L. C. S. 72, L. M. L. given below. In some cases, too, it will be seen that the term implies military service, as when de militia regis juvenis is translated sum geong ðæs cyninges ðegin (see also other passages below from Bd. 4, 3, and 5, 13); in others, the service is that of the household, v. Bd. 4, 3; S. 567, 21, and búr-, disc-, hrægl-þegen; in others it is official work in the country. For the development of the class of thanes in England, see Stubbs' Const. Hist. s. v. thegn; Kemble's Saxons in England, I. c. 7, II, c. 3; Schmid, A. S. Gesetz. s. v. þegen. 1. where the word is used of other than Teutonic peoples Wæs his (St. Martin's) fæder ǽrest cyninges þegn, and geðeáh ðæt hé wæs cininges þegna aldorman, Blickl. Homl. 211, 21. (Cf. His (St. Martin's ) fæder wæs æðelboren, ǽrest cempa, and siððan cempena ealdor, Homl. Th. ii. 498, 25. St. Martin's father was a military tribune.) Þegn satrapa, Wrt. Voc. i. 42, 17. Xersis þegn wæs háten Marðonius, Ors. 2, 5; Swt. 82, 28. Wé sǽdon, ðæt hé wǽre ryhtwísra ðá ðá hé ðeng wæs ðonne hé wǽre siððan hé kyning wæs. Ðá ðá hé ðegn wæs hé his feónd ne dorste ofsleán David rectior fuit in servitio, quam cum pervenit ad regnum. Servus adversarium ferire timuit, Past. 50; Swt. 393, 2-6. Tarcuinius óðerne ðegn ongeán sende, Ors. 2, 3; Swt. 63, 17. Pharaones þegnas servi Pharaonis, Ex. 10, 7. His (Ulysses' ) þegnas him ne mihton leng mid gewunian, Bt. 38, 1; Fox 194, 27. Mænegum cyninges (king of Egypt ) þegnum, Cd. Th. 111, 5; Gen. 1851. (1 a) where the Deity is the king served :-- Metodes ðegn, Abraham, Cd. Th. 176, 6; Gen. 2907. Dryhtnes þegn (Guthlac ), Exon. Th. 143, 22; Gú. 665. Ðú cyninges eart þegen geþungen, Andr. Kmbl. 1055; An. 528. Wuldres þegn, engel Drihtnes, Cd. Th. 136, 31; Gen. 2266. Ðæt is micel wundor, ðæt wolde þeóden þolian, ðæt wurde þegn swá monig forlǽdd, 37, 30; Gen. 597, (1 b) figurative :-- Fuglas þringaþ ymbe æþelne (the phenix ), ǽghwylc wille wesan þegn and þeów þeódne mǽrum, Exon. Th. 209, 3; Ph. 165. 2. where the word applies to Englishmen or to other Teutonic peoples Hér Hengest and Æsc gefuhton uuiþ Walas and hiera þegn án wearþ ofslægen, Chr. 465; Erl. 12, 23. Gest hine clǽnsie sylfes áðe, swylce cyninges þeng, L. Wih. 20; Th. i. 40, 20. Lilla se cyninges ðegn him se holdesta minister regi amicissimus, Bd. 2, 9; S. 511, 22. Suns geong ðæs cyninges ðegin de militia ejus juvenis, 4, 22; S. 590, 33. Ðá ondrǽdde hé andettan ðæt hé cyninges ðegen wǽre, ac sǽde, ðæt hé folclíc man wǽre, and ðaet hé forðon in ða fyrd cóme, ðæt hé sceolde cyninges ðegnum heora mete lǽdan timuit se militem fuisse confiteri; rusticum se fuisse respondit, et propter victum militibus adferendum in expeditionem se venisse testatus est, S. 591, 5-9. Hé sægde ðæt hé wǽre cyninges ðeng ministrum se regis fuisse manifestans, 591, 38. Hé ðære ylcan cwéne ðeng (minister ) wæs, 592, 13. Sum wer wæs on lǽwedum háde ðæs cyninges ðegn vir in laico habitu atque officio militari positus, 5, 13; S. 632, 8. Þegn, se ðe on handa bær ealowǽge, Beo. Th. 993; B. 494. Þegn Hróðgáres, égweard, 475; B. 235. Eádwold cynges ðegen, Chr. 905; Erl. 98, 28. Gif mon cyninges þegn beteó, gif hé hine ládian dyrre, dó hé ðæt mid .xii. cininges þegnum. Gif man ðone man betýhþ ðe biþ læssa maga (mága?) ðonne se cyninges þegn, ládige hé hine mid .xi. his gelícena and mid ánum cyninges þægne, L. A. G. 3; Th. i. 154, 5-9. Gif cyninges þegn ætsace ... gilde .x. healfmearc (cf. the next two sections), L. N. P. L. 51; Th. ii. 298, 7: 58; Th. ii. 300, 3: 60; Th. ii. 300, 9. Burgbryce mon sceal bétan ealdormonnes .lxxx. sciłł., cyninges þegnes .lx. sciłł., gesíðcundes monnes landhæbbendes .xxxv. sciłł., L. In. 45; Th. i. 130, 9. Eorles heregeata syndon ... And syþþan cyninges þegenes (þegnas, MS. G.) ðe him nýhste syndon ... And medemra þegna ... And cyninges þegnes heregeata inne mid Denum ðe his sócne hæbbe feówer pund. And gif hé tó ðam cyninge furðor cýððe hæbbe..., L. C. S. 72; Th. i. 414, 4-20. Ðegenes lagu is, ðæt hé sý his bócrihtes wyrðe, and ðæt hé ðreó ðinc of his lande dó, fyrdfæreld and burhbóte and brycgeweorc. Eác of manegum landum máre landrilit áríst tó cyniges gebanne, L. R. S. 1; Th. i. 432, 4-7. Ðegnes wergild is syx swá micel (swá ceorles). Ðonne biþ cynges ánfeald wergild .vi. þegna wer be Myrcna lage, L. M. L.; Th. i. 190, 2-5. Hié (the Danes ) sealdon (Ceólwulfe) ánum unwísum cyninges þegne Miercna ríce tó haldanne, Chr. 874; Erl. 76, 27. Nán man náge náne sócne ofer cynges þegen búton cyng sylf, L. Eth. iii. 11; Th. i. 296, 23. Ðæs cyninges þegnas (cf. ða men ðe mid ðam cyninge wǽrun, Erl. 48, 31), Chr. 755; Erl. 50, 3, 9. Hé wæs hyre (the queen's) ðéna hire húses and hire geférscipes oferealdormonn erat primus ministrorum et princeps domus ejus, Bd. 4, 3; S. 567, 21. Se cyning gestód æt ðam fýre mid his ðegnum (ministris ), 3, 14; S. 540, 34. Wé willaþ ðæt man namige on ǽlcon wǽpengetæce .ii. trýwe þegnas and ǽnne mæssepreóst, L. N. P. L. 57; Th. ii. 298, 31. In the two following passages, though translations, the ideas are probably English :-- Cyningas ne magan nǽnne weorþscipe forþ bringan búton heora þegna (servientium) fultume. Hwæt wille wé secgan be ðám ðegnum (familiaribus; cf. folgerum, l. 10), Bt. 29, 1-2; Fox 104, 12-15. Mid miclon geférscipe hiora þegna, and ða bióþ mid fetlum and mid gyldenum hyltsweordum and mid manigfealdum heregeatwum gehyrste, 37, 1; Fox 184, 4. VI a. a thane who served a bishop :-- Wulfhere bisceopes ðegn, Chr. 1001; Erl. 136, 8. Ic Leófinc bisceop gebócige sumne dǽl landes mínan holdan and getreówan þegene, ðam is Ægelríc nama, for his eádmódre gehérsumnysse, Chart. Erl. 242, 11. Ic (Cnut) cýðe, ðæt ic hæbbe geunnen him (archbishop Æthelnoth), ðæt hé beó his saca and sócne wyrðe ofer his ágene menn and ofer swá feala þegna swá ic him tólǽtan hæbbe, 233, 6. VI b. one engaged in the service of a republic :-- Scipia, se betsta Rómána þegn (se besta and se sélesta Rómána witena and þegena, MS. C.), Ors. 5, 4; Swt. 224, 24. VII. a person of rank, one of a class higher than the ordinary freeman (ceorl). v. þegen-boren Þegn primas, Wrt. Voc. i. 42, 14. Ðegn optimas, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 25; Zup. 50, 3. Ðeáh þrǽla hwylc hláforde æthleápe, and hit æfter ðam geweorðe, ðæt wǽpngewrixl weorðe gemǽne þegene and þrǽle, gyf þrǽl ðæne þegen áfylle, licge ǽgylde; and gyf se þegen ðæne þrǽl, ðe hé ǽr áhte, áfylle, gylde þegengylde. Wulfst. 162, 5-l0. Ǽlc dohtig man on Kænt and on Súð-Sexan, on þegenan and on ceorlan, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iv. 11, 7. VIII. a brave man, noble man, good warrior; vir fortis. v. þegen-líc, -líce, -scipe, III Gif gé swelce þegnas synt, swelce gé wénaþ ðæt gé sién, ðonne sceoldon gé lustlíce eówre ágnu brocu áræfnan, Ors. 3, 7; Swt. 120, 7. Ðæt wæs swíðe sweotol, ðæt hié ðá wǽron beteran þegnas ðonne hié nú sién, ðæt hié ðæs gewinnes geswícan noldon, 4, 9; Swt. 192, 32. VIII a. in poetry the word is used, like eorl, as a corrplimerrtary term for man, warrior :-- Swylc sceolde secg wesan, þegn æt þearfe, Beo. Th. 5411; B. 2709. Se þegn (St. John ) wæs on wynne, Exon. Th. 462, 21; Hö. 55. Þances gleáw þegn. (St. Andrew ), Andr. Kmbl. 1114; An. 557. Ðám þegne (Adam ) ongan his hige hweorfan, Cd. Th. 44, 7; Gen. 705. Scyle áscian deóphýdig mon ... ne sceal ðæs áþreótan þegn módigne, Exon. Th. 348, 1; Sch. 21. Ðæt micle morð menn ne þorfton, þegnas þolian, Cd. Th. 40, 18; Gen. 641. Wlance þegenas, unearge men, Byrht. Th. 137, 53; By. 205. Ne sceolon mé on ðære þeóde þegenas ætwítan (cf. stedefæste hæleð, 139, 5; By. 249), 138, 15; By. 220. ¶ The word is applied to Christ :-- Þegen mid þreáte, þeóden engla, Cd. Th. 288, 27; Sat. 388. [O. Sax. þegan: O. H. Ger. degan masculus, herus, miles, defensor: Icel. þegn.] v. ærn-, ambeht-, bed-, búr-, burh-, cyric-, disc-, duru-, ealdor-, forþ-, gum-, hand-, heáh-, heal-, helle-, hrægl-, mægen-, mæsse-, magu-, mete-, scír-, scóh-, sele-, tintreg-, weofod-, weoruld-, wic-, wíf-þegen (-þegn).
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