be
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be
Add: A. dat. I. local, 1. nearness to a point, a. rest Wé be þǽm treówum stódan, Nar. 29, 24. Caiphan mid þám óþrum be (bi, v. l.) him (juxta eum ), Bd. 5, 14; Sch. 645, 15. Be healfe mínum hláforde beside my lord, By. 318. Heó gesæt big Hǽlendes fótum, Bl. H. 67, 27. b. motion Sum man rád be þǽre stówe (juxta locum ), Bd. 3, 9; Sch. 229, 20. Forþ bi þǽre eá siglan to sail past the mouth of the river, Ors. 1, 1; S. 17, 22. 2. nearness along a line or surface, by, along, a. rest Hí gelógodon ðá untruman be ðǽre strǽt, Hml. Th. i. 316, 14. b. motion Fór hé be þǽm lande he sailed along the coast, Ors. 1, 1; S. 17, 9. Hé eóde be þǽre strǽt, Hml. S. 29, 51. 3. where local conditions of an action are defined Se here wið feaht ge be wætere ge be lande, Chr. 1016; P. 150, 12. Þæt folc eóde be dríum grunde, Hml. Th. ii. 194, 20. Hwæt se wítega him be wege (by the way, on the road ) sǽde, Hml. S. 18, 241. 4. marking part handled Se wæs togen ofdúne be þám þeón and upp be þám earmum, Gr. D. 320, 19. Hé geféng be eaxle Grendles módor, B. 1537. Heó genam hine be feaxe sínum, Jud. 99. Hé gegráp sweord be gehiltum, Gen. 2905. II. temporal, 1. of a point of time, by, not later than Ciricsceattas sín ágifene be Sc̃e Martines mæssan, Ll. Th. i. 104, 9. Be Pentecosten . . . be emnnihte, 262, 20. 2. of a period, by, during Ge be heora lífe ge æfter heora lífe, Cht. Th. 137, 30. Be Cnutes dæge cinges, 336, 33. 3. of a period within which an event falls, a. marked by reference to a person then living, cf. III. 28 Constantinus be Diocletiane lyfgendum (vivente Diocletiano ) Gallia ríce heóld, Bd. 1, 8; Sch. 28, 25. Þára landa ðe unc Aðulf forgeaf be Æðelbolde lifiendum, Cht. Th. 485, 33. Gif ceorl ácwyle be libbendum wífe and bearne, Ll. Th. i. 30, 3. Be lifiendre þǽre (þǽre cwenan, Wlfst. 269, 33), 316, 10. Gif hý hit be þan libbendan habban wyllan if they will have it in their lifetime, Cht. Th. 491, 25. Gif man mid esnes cwynan geligeð be cwicum ceorle, Ll. Th. i. 24, 9: 406, 6. b. by reference to living memory Be manna gemynde within the memory of man, Chr. 959; P. 114, 22. III. in other relations, 1. association or companionship, by, with Ne hé ná má wífa þonne án hæbbe ac beó be þǽre ánre þá hwíle þe heó lybbe, Wlfst. 271, 15: Ll. Th. i. 318, 19. Wíf bið be ánum were (vivente viro ), ii. 158, 5. Seó godcundnes mæg beón ungemenged wið óþre gesceafta . . . ne mæg nán óþer gesceaft be him selfum bión, Bt. 35, 5; F. 166, 7. 2. conveyance, by (in to send by) Hé him onsænde be his cnihtum twá spyrtan, Gr. D. 203, 4. Man Rómgesceot be him sende, Chr. 1095; P. 232, 10. Hé hét cýðan þám arceƀ be Ðeódréde biscop he sent word to the archbishop by bishop Theodred, Ll. Th. i. 240, 24. 3. accompaniment Be hearpan singan, Lk. 7, 32: Bd. 4, 24; S. 597, 6. (3 a) marking accompanying circumstances :-- hé be leáfe óðer wíf niman móte quod cum venia aliam uxorem ducere possit, Ll. Th. ii. 190, 2. 4. assistance Gif hé gangan mæge bi stafe if he can walk with a stick, Ll. Th. i. 48, 10. 5. marking presence Dǽle man be scriftes and be túnes geréfan gewitnesse, Wlfst. 181, 6. 6. subject to Síðþan ic mé hæfde þás þing be gewealdum quibus in potestatem redactis, Nar. 5, 17. Beó se þeóf ealles scyldig þæs þe hé age, and þeófa gewita beó be þám ilcan (subject to the same penalty ), Ll. Th. i. 200, 24. Sé þe be lytlum þingum beón mæge he that needs little to be done for him (qui minus indiget) . . . se þe be máran þingan beón scyle, R. Ben. 57, 23-58, 2. Hí leofodon be hungre seofon niht meteleáse, Hml. S. 16, 81. 7. comparison Hwelc gewinn þá wǽron be ðǽm þe nú sindon, Ors. 2, 6; S. 88, 32. Hú seó burh burne and hú lange be þǽre óþerre, Bt. 16, 4; F. 58, 5. Swylc is wyrd be þám godcundan foreþonce swilce hweól biþ tó metanne wiþ ðá eaxe, 39, 8; F. 224, 3. 8. marking the object with which a circumstance is connected, in the case of, in the matter of, in, with Bi (be, v. l.) monnum with men, Past. 63, 11. Be (bi, v. l.) þám aldan þeódscype (in testamento veteri ) þá ýttran weorc wǽron behealden, Bd. 1, 27; Sch. 84, 10. Seó wíse wæs unéþe be mínre seolfre nédþearfe, Nar. 9, 24. Swá hit biþ be ǽlcum þára þinga, Bt. 27, 4; F. 100, 17. ilce þú miht geþencan be ðám líchoman and be his limum, 190, 26. Suá hé ǽr be him wénde quod de eis jam certum tenebat, Past. 241, 5. Gá ǽlc cyricsceat intó þám ealdan mynstre be (in the case of) ǽlcum frígan heorðe, Ll. Th. i. 262, 16. Se áð sceal bión healf be (in the case of, with ) húslgengum, 112, 4. Bige ús rumlícor tó dæg be hláfe . . . and bring ús bet be hláf in your purchase for us to-day be more liberal with bread, and be a better provider for us in the matter of bread, Hml. S. 23, 467. Ðá gebróðra næfdon búton fíf hláfas. Benedictus . . . cwæð: 'Tó-dæg wé habbað hwónlíce be hláf,' Hml. Th. ii. 172, 2. 9. marking the object affected by a deed or event, (to do) by or about, to, with, (to become) of Ðæt hé onginne sume scande bi (be, v. l. ) ðǽm óðrum, Past. 225, 25. Hwæt dó ic be þám Hǽlende quid faciam de Iesu?, Mt. 27, 22. Hwæt be ðé gedón beón sceolde quid de te fieri deberet, Bd. 5, 12; Sch. 629, 6. Hwæt dó ic be Iudéa cininge quid faciam regi Iudaeorum?, Mk. 15, 12: Nic. 18, 24. Dóð be ús Drihten wile, Hml. S. 11, 133. Tó dónne be him eall swá Iudas dyde be úre Drihtene, Chr. 1087; P. 222, 34. Hwæt be ðyssum þingum tó dónne wǽre quid de his agendum, Bd. 2, 9; Sch. 1504: Shrn. 139, 24. Hwæt be mé geweorðe quid de me fieri velit Deus, Bd. 5, 19; Sch. 670, 14. Hú hyt be þé geworden ys, Nic. 10, 34. Hwæt geworden wǽre be þám biscope, Gr. D. 172, 10. Hwæt bið be ús synfullum, Hml. S. 31, 1406. (io) marking the object of thought, feeling, care :-- Þá þe syrwdon be him, H. R. 107, 2. Bysige ðé be sumum men, Prov. K. 43. Geseoh þú be þǽre flascan . . . ne drinc ðú of þǽre, Gr. D. 142, 3. Wyrd swá be þínum heáfde hafað árǽded, Nar. 29, 13. Geortrúwian be þís andweardan lífe, Bt. 10; F. 30, 7. (11) marking object of speech, hearing, knowledge, about, of :-- Hé liéhð bie (bi, v. l. ) ðǽm gódum weorcum, Past. 55, 24. Sprec tó þínum discipulum be þám mægenum þe þín láreów dyde, St. A. 8, 14. Be þæs forwyrde (de cujus interitu ) se ealda feónd gelýfde hé mihte gebysmrian Benedictum, Gr. D. 126, 3. Gif hé hwæt be óðrum gehýre,Ll. Th. ii. 316, 18. Þá word þe wé be þám Hǽlende gesáwon and gehýrdon, Nic. 8, 40: 2, 17. Ic wát eall be þám, Hml. S. 24, 152. (12) marking quarter in which something is sought :-- Hwílum man ceás wíslíce men folce tó hyrdum . . . syððan hit man sóhte be þám þe nearwlícast cúðan swician, Ll. Th. ii. 320, 24. (13) marking source :-- Hwæt sý be Gode (de Deo) . . . hwæt sý be heom sylfum (de semet*-*ipsis), Gr. D. 146, 36-147, 3. (13 a) by (in to have a child by a woman) :-- Be ðǽre hé hæfde áne doher, Ap. Th. 1, 8: Chr. 1057; P. 188, 14. (14) marking cause :-- Hwanan sió ádl cume be misgewiderum and of metta þiginge, Ld. ii. 244, 11. (15) marking ground of action, because of, on account of :-- Ne gedyrstlǽce nán man be mægðháde bútan sóðre lufe; ne trúwige nán man be ælmesdǽdum oððe on gebedum bútan lufe; Hml. Th. i. 54, 10-13. Sé be (propter, Lat. vers.) wítum geswícan nylle, Ll. Th. i. 210, 4. (16) marking reason :-- 'Be hwám (wherefore ) cwest ðú ?' Ðá cwæþ ic: 'For þám þe þú ǽr cwǽde . . .,' Bt. 38, 3; F. 202, 11. Wé sǽdan hú wé hit reahtan and be hwý wé hit reahtan, Cht. Th. 171, 6. (17) for the sake of :-- Nis ðis gewrít be ánum men áwriten ac ys be eallum, Hept. Thw. 163, 20. ¶ be þam in order that :-- Be þám ðú mihtest þý éð ongitan, Bt. 36, 5; F. 180, 1: 39, 9; F. 226, 8. (18) marking material from which an inference or knowledge may be drawn, by which judgement may be made :-- Ǽlc treów is be his wǽstme (de fructu suo ) oncnáwen, Lk. 6, 44. Þá geseah þæt wíf þæt þæt treów wæs gód tó etanne, be þan þe hire þúhte, Gen. 3, 6. Ne ceós ðú nánne man be his ǽhtum, Prov. K. 42. Be þisum litlum man mæg understandan, Ælfc. Gen. Thw. 3, 20. Be eallum þisum racum þú miht ongitan ex quo fit, Bt. 36, 6; F. 180, 26. Ðæt is sweotol tó ongitanne be sumum æðelinge, 16, 2; F. 52, 18: 37, 3; F. 190, 19. Be þám wæs cweden unde dicitur, Bd. 1, 27; Sch. 79, 3: 85, 10: Past. 153, 8. Be þǽm man mehte ongietan ubi conjici datur, Ors. 3, 4; S. 104, 10. Be þan man wát þæt hé bið his hláford, Wlfst. 298, 4: 152, 21. Ongitan be þám de nánne mon ne lyst þæs þinges to understand from the thing pleasing nobody, Bt. 34, 7; F. 144, 1. Ic wille secgon be hwǽm ic hit ǽrest ongeat, 35, 2; F. 156, 33. (19) marking means or material used, by, by means of, by the use of :-- Hangað sweord be smalan þrǽde, Bt. 29, 1; F. 102, 27. Ic hæfde sweotole gereht be manegum tácnum, 11, 2; F. 34, 32. Ðá óðre be him libben, Past. 319, 19. Hé leofode be hláfe and be wætere, Hml. S. 3, 478. Behwilcum þingum féddest þú ðé?, Hml. S. 23 b, 517. Þæt eal folc fæste be hláfe and wirtum and wætere, Wlfst. 180, 24. (19 a) marking object used to typify or signify something :-- Bi Judéum wæs gecueden ðurh ðone wítgan sub Judeae specie per prophetam dicitur, Past. 241, 5. Be ðám sceabbe sió hreófe getácnað ðæt wóhhǽmed, 71, 4. (19 b) by way of, in the form of :-- Gif hé secge hé hæbbe hire freóndscipe, ys be lufe (amatorie), Ll. Th. ii. 230, 17. (20) marking agent :-- Þá ðing þe be him wǽrun gewordene quae fiebant ab eo, Lk. 9, 7. (21) marking the object that serves as model, after :-- Swelcra má bi ðǽre bisene, Past. 9, 14. On þára apostola drohtnunge, be þám muneca líf is gebysenod, R. Ben. 57, 6. Þǽre þeóde hé óþerne naman áscóp be him syluum, Ors. 1, 8; S. 40, 33: Hml. Th. i. 478, 10: Angl. vii. 44, 429. Óþer burh wæs hátenu be his horse Bucefal, Ors. 3, 9; S. 132, 26. (22) marking that which guides action or conduct, or which determines a statement, according to, after :-- Ðǽm mannum þe be his lárum lifiaþ, Bl. H. 61, 13. Be ðám ðe hí tǽhton sylfe lybbende, Hml. Th. ii. 130, 3. Þǽra manna þe lybbað be ágenum lustum, i. 536, 22. Unrihtdéman þe démað áfre be þám sceatte unjust judges that are ever guided in their judgements by bribery, Wlfst. 298, 19. Hit oferstíhð, be ðæs wítegan cwyde, sandceosles gerím, 34. (23) marking measure, rate, degree :-- Beó gemeten nygon fét be þæs mannes fótan (ad mensuram pedum ejus ), Ll. Th. i. 226, 13. Fultum be swá manegum mannum swá ús cinelic þince, 236, 15. Þæt ylce gemet, þæt is be twelf sealmum, R. Ben. 35, 6. Hæbbe wé þæt feoh bróht be þám ylcan gewihte, Gen. 43, 21. Þá eá mehte wífmon be hiere cneówe oferwadan, Ors. 2, 4; S. 72, 33. Máre be ánum stæfe, Nic. 19, 21. Bið se ofsprinc gesíðcundes cynnes be twám þúsendum, Ll. Th. i. 188, 12. Ðú be dinere dægullicum geþingdest wið mé, Mt. R. 20, 13, 2. Steorran feóllan náht be ánan oððe twám, ac þiclíce, Chr. 1095; P. 230, 29. Drinc be dropan, Lib. ii. 130, 4. Rúde be healfan þǽre saluion, 292, 16. Be twyfealdum forgielde hé hit, Ll. Th. i. 50, 22: 224, 13. Léton heora fultum binnan beón be þǽm dǽle þæt hié ǽgðer mehton . . ., Ors. 4, 5; S. 168, 24: Bt. 34, 12; F. 152, 19. Be nánum dǽle, 39, 7; F. 222, 18. Be mǽstan at most, Hml. Th. i. 594, 25. Be fullan, Hml. S. 35, 29. (24) marking proportion :-- Gif héé Ǽlcan ǽnlýpium wæs geseald be ðám þe hé behófade, R. Ben. 57, 19. Bétan be his gyltes andefne, Bl. H. 45, 28. Wé syndon geómrigende be myclum gewyrhtum, St. A. 36, 2. (25) marking that from which action results, by the command, at the request :-- Hé férde be his hláfordes hǽse, Gen. 24, 10. Gif þeów mon wyrce on Sunnandæg be his hláfordes hǽse, Ll. Th. i. 104, 2. Sé gefreóde Ongelcynnes scóle be Ælfrédes béne, Chr. 885; P. 80, 6. (26) marking penalty, a. by deprivation, under pain of losing Forgá hé þýfðe be his feóre and be eallum þám þe hé áge, Ll. Th. i. 210, 3. Hé bebeád eallum his folce be heora lífe þæt hí sceoldon hí gebiddan tó ðǽre anlícnysse, Hml. Th. ii. 18, 24: Hml. S. 11, 6. Hé beád ǽlc man be his heáfde deófle sceolde offrian, 23, 29. gehwilc man his teóðunge gelǽste be Godes miltse and be þæs cynges and be ealles crístenes folces, Wlfst. 272, 7: Ll. Th. i. 342, 12. Beóde ic mínum geréfan be mínum freóndscipe and be eallum þám þe hí ágon, 272, 5. b. by infliction, under pain of suffering Healde man freólsunga be þám wíte (under pain of suffering the penalty ) þe seó dómbóc tǽcð, Ll. Th. i. 264, 20: 342, 12. 'Híí Be þǽre steóre þe Eádgár gelagede, Wlfst. 272, 8. Be mýnre oferhýrnysse, Ll. Th. i. 196, 15. (27) adjuration, by :-- Yc eów bidde on Godes naman and on ealra his háligra, and eác be mínum freóndscipe, Ll. Th. i. 194, 5. (28) with dative absolute, cf. II. 3 a :-- Gif elles be cwicum mannum (nobody being killed) ciricgrið ábrocen beó, Ll. Th. i. 340, 20: 360, 11. B. instr. :-- Bi ðýs (be ðǽm, v. l. ) ilcan, Past. 169, 19. Be þý, Bt. 34, 1; F. 134, 13: 34, 7; 142, 29. Þá men bi ðý lifdon, Nar. 26, 22. C. adverb :-- Stódon him twégen weras big, Bl. H. 121, 23. Þæt yrfe þe wé big leofiaþ, 51, 18. Meolc þe hý bí libbað, Ors. 1, 2; S. 30, 10. Þæs þe eall þeódscype big sceall libban, Ll. Th. ii. 306, 36. Zó þǽm mere þe wé bí gewícod hæfdon, Nar. 12, 21. Búton hió hwǽr tó lǽne sié, oððe hwá óðre bí wríte, Past. 9, 7. v. , in Dict., bí-libban, big-standan.
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