gif
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gif
Add: Conj, introducing a conditional clause. The indicative after gif implies the certain occurrence of a circumstance, the reality of a state, &c., spoken of in the clause, admits the truth of the statement contained in the clause. Gyf þú wylt, þú miht (Mt. 8, 2); here it is implied that the person addressed is actually willing to act. Hú magon wé . . . gif þú his ne meaht ór áreccan? (Dan. 133); here the inability on the part of the person addressed to give any account of the matter is taken as certain. Gif gé mé lufiað, healdað míne beboda you do love me, so keep my commandments. The difference between the indicative and subjunctive after gif may be illustrated by the following passages Gif cyning æt mannes hám drincæð and þǽr man lyswæs hwæt gedó. Ll. Th. i. 4, 1-2; here the entertainment of the king is an event sure to take place, so drincæð is indicative; but the wrong-doing is quite uncertain, so gedó is subjunctive. (See also 2, 8-9.) Gif man frígne mannan ofsleahð, 4, 6; but gif in cyninges túne man mannan ofsleá, 4, 4: for homicide was a certainty, but that it should take place in a king's town was not so. Cf. too gif fríg man fréum stelð, 6, 2, with gif fríg man cyninge stele, 4, 3. Perhaps the different renderings of the same Latin words are intended to mark a change in the speaker's mind, when in Mt. 4, 3 si filius Dei es is translated gyf þú Godes sunu sý, while in v. 6 the rendering is gyf þú Godes sunu eart. But sometimes the distinction seems not very clearly marked. Cf. with Ll. Th. i. 4, 1-2 (v. supra): Gif mon hafað spere ofer eaxle and hine mon on ásnáseð . . . Gif beforan eágum ásnáse, 84, 12-14: here on ásnáse (like gedó) might have been expected. Cf. too, gif mec deáð nimeð, B. 447, with gif mec hilde nime, 452, the reference is to the same peril in each: and gif gé syndon þegnas . . . . An. 344, with gif þú þegn sié . . . , 417, the evidence of thaneship is the same in both cases . Gif ceorl búton wífes wísdóme deóflum gelde . . . Gif bútwú deóflum geldað. . . , Ll. Th. i. 40, 4-6. Agif. . . ; gif þú . . . aldres réce . . . þú sweltan scealt . . . , gif þú wyrnest, Gen. 2654 - 2660: here the certainty seems to belong rather to réce than to wyrnest. See also in Mk. L. 12, 19: gef bróðer deád sié ł bið (mortuus fuerit). I. the conditional clause in the indic., and 1. present or future tense. a. the principal clause present or future if, when Ealle þás ic sylle þé, gyf þú feallende tó mé geeádmétst (adoraveris ). Mt. 4, 9: Bl. H. 27, 18 : 13, 9: Jul. 169 : Jn. 8, 52 : 14, 14 : Gen. 2315: Exod. 560: 13, 1182. Gyf hé þé gehýrð (audierit ), þú gestaðelast þínne bróðor, Mt. 18, 15. Gif wé willaþ nú on Drihten gelýfan, þonne beó wé sittende be þǽm wege, Bl. H. 23, 7: Bt. 3, 4; F. 6, 16: Sat. 251: Gen. 559: 2521: Sch. 35. Him (the blind man ) bið mycel daru, gif hé hit geseón ne mæg, Bl. H. 21, 8. Þú ne bist unscyldig wið mé, gif þú on ídelnesse cýst mínne noman (cf. nec habebit insontem Dominus eum, qui assumpserit nomen Domini frustra , Ex. 20, 7) Ll. Th. i. 44, 8: Cri. 1310 : Mód. 45 : An. 1570 : 1614. Meaht þú Adame gestýran, gif þú his willan hæfst, Gen. 569: 570: 578: Cri. 78i: B. 1185 : 1822. Gyf gé þá lufiað (diligatis) þe eów lufiað (diligunt ), hwylce méde habbað gé?, Mt. 5, 46: 47. Hú mæg ǽnig man ryhtwíslíce ácsigan, gif hé nán grot rihtwísnesse on him næfþ?, Bt. 35, 1; F. 156, 6 : 7, 2 ; F. 18, 6: Met. 22, 46. Gief (gif, v. l. ) wé ðonne habbað suá micle sorge . . . , ðonne hæbbe wé bégen fét gescóde untǽllíce, Past. 45, 10. Gif (gife, L.) þín eáge bið mánfull, eal þín líchama byð þýsterfull, Mt. 6, 23: Lk. 12, 45. (a α) where the condition depends upon what is implied in the principal clause :-- Þú gehǽtst. . . éce líf, gif wé sóð and ryht symle gelǽstað thy promise is that we shall have eternal life, if we ever do truth and right , Hy. 7, 75. b. the principal clause imperative Gyf þín bróðor syngað (syngige, R. L. , peccauerit ) wið þé, gá and stýr him. Mt. 18, 15 : 16 : 17. Gif gé Abrahames beam synt, wyrceað Abrahames weorc, Jn. 8, 39. Gif gé mé lufiað (diligitis ), healdað míne beboda, 14, 15. Gif man wið cyninges mægdenman geligeð, .L. scillinga gebéte, Ll. Th. i. 6, 4 (and often), c. where the clause on which the condition depends is dependent Ðæt wé gedón, swá wé eáðe magon, gif wé ðá stilnesse habbað, Past. 7, 9. d. the principal clause past Gif hí nu góde sint, þonne wǽron hí swá gesceapene, Bt. 14, 2 ; F. 42, 36. 2. in the past tense, and the principal clause (pres. or fut.) indic, or imper. Gif ic þwóh eówre fét, gé sceolon þweán eówer ǽlc óðres fét, Jn. 13, 14. Gif þú . . . gesealdest, hit is riht. Bt. 7, 2; F. 18, 33. Nǽnig mon ne sceal géman his gesibbes, gif hé hine ǽrost ágǽlde Godes þeówdómes, Bl. H. 23, 17. Gif ic dyde ðis. . . gif ic ágald ðǽm geldendum . . . , ic gefallu. Ps. Srt. 7, 4-5. II. the conditional clause in the subjunctive, and 1. present tense, a. the principal clause imperative Gif þú sié Godes sunu, cweþ þá stánas tó hláfum geweorþan, Bl. H. 27, 7:12. Be ðon gif mon óðres godsunu ofsleá. Gif hwá óðres sunu sleá . . . , sié sió mǽgbót and sió manbót gelíc, Ll. Th. i. 150, 11-14 (and often ). Gif þé þæt gelimpe . . . , þonne þú gecýð, El. 441. Gib Eádwald leng lifige . . . geselle et ðém londe .x. ðúsenda, C. D. i. 256, 5. Gief hwá hit ábrecan wille, hæbbe him wið God gemǽne, iii. 168, 25: 180, 22. b. the principal clause indic. (pres. or fut.) Gif hwylc gód man from góde gewíte, ðonne ne bið hé þe má fullíce gód. Bt. 37, 3; F. 190, 28. Gif hit eówer ǽnig mæge gewendan, . . . sóna hié him þe láðran beóð, Gen. 427. c. where the clause on which the condition depends is dependent, and α. present Áhycgan, þæt wé on Adame, gif wé mægen, . . . andan gebétan, Gen. 398. β. past with pres. or fut. sense God hæfde getiohhod . . . gif hí ðone frýdóm teala gehealdon, hé hí wolde weorþian, Bt. 41, 3; F. 248, 10. d. where the condition does not apply directly to the principal clause, but must be inferred Gif þú ðá nýdþearfe witan wille, þonne is þæt mete and drync and cláþas if you want to know what is needful, [I will tell you;] it is meat and drink and clothes , Bt. 14, 1; F. 42, 4. 2. past tense with future sense, and principal clause in indic. (pres. or fut.) Gif ic sóð sprǽce, þonne sceal heó sweltan, Cri. 190. III. with both clauses in subjunctive, 1. with conditional clause in past subjunctive with present or future sense Swá þæt hé mehte ǽgþerre gerǽcau, gif hié ǽnigne feld sécan wolden, Chr. 894; P. 84, 26. Gif God wǽre eówre fæder, witodlíce gé lufedon mé si Deus pater uester essei, diligeretis utique me , Jn. 8, 42. Gif se weorþscipe þám welan gecynde wǽre . . . oþþe eft se wela þæs welegan ágen wǽre, þonne ne mihte hé hine forlǽtan, Bt. 27, 3 ; F. 98, 24. Eálá te ðis moncyn wǽre gesǽlig, gif heora mód wǽre riht, 21: F. 74, 40. Gif eall þisses middaneardes wela cóme tó ánum men, hú ne wǽron þonne ealle óþre men wǽdlan?, 13; F. 38, 20. Hú wolde þé nú lícian, gif hwilc cyning wǽre . . . ?, 41, 1; F. 244, 24 : 27. 2. conditional clause in pluperf. subj. with past sense Gif þú wǽre hér, nǽre mín bróðor deád si fuisses hic, frater meus non fuisset mortuus , Jn. 11, 21 : 32. Gif deófol hine ne gesáwe on úre gecynde, ne costode hé hine . . . Gif hé nǽre sóþ God, ná him englas ne þegnodon, Bl. H. 33, 35- 35, 2 : 29, 4 : Hex. 22, 27 : Gen. 643 : 787 : B. 592 : El. 777 : Bt. 7, ; F. 18, 11 : 40, 6 ; F. 242, 7. Gif hié þá blótan mehten, hié woldon secgean þæt him hiera godas gehulpan quam si aruspices celebrassent, diis gloriam vindicassent , Ors. 5, 2 ; S. 218, 5. ¶ with the present tense in the clause on which the conditional depends :-- Hé teohhodee IV. implying that an unfavourable point is conceded, even if, suppose or granted that Hwider hweorfað wé, . . . gif wé swícað þé? suppose we do leave you, where shall we go? An. 407. Ac is wunder mycel, . . . gif þú hit sylfa wást it is a great wonder, even if it is granted that you know it yourself , Hy. 3, 20. V. the conditional clause alone used as an exclamation Eálá gif þú wistest on þyssum þínum dæge þe ðé tó sybbe synt, Lk. 19, 42. Eálá gif ic hæfde þíne synna ána, Hml. S. 3, 521. VI. introducing a noun-clause depending on verbs of knowing, learning, doubting, &c., whether Gefrægn hine gif ł huoeðer ł (si ) huoelchuoego gesége, Mk. L. 8, 23. Huoeðer ł gif si , Lk. L. 23, 6. Man ne gehýrde gif ǽnig scyphere wǽre búton ágenre leóde, Hml. S. 21, 448. Secgaþ gif gé willað þám cásere gehýrsumian, 29, 226. Þú scealt cýðan, gif þú his ondgitan ǽnige hæbbe, An. 1523. Geseoh gif ic on unrihte eóde, Ps. Th. 138, 21. Ic wille fundigan, gif hié synna fremmað Gen. 2412.
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