se
Morphological Analysis
Wordclass: Pronoun, Conjunction
Related §§ in Wright's OE Grammar:
In the OE text, the length is:indicated by acute accentsindicated by macronsnot indicated.
se
sió, Lchdm. ii. 260, l; m.: seó, ðeó, Blickl. Homl. 65, 13; se, Lchdm. ii. 228, 8; f.: ðæt; n. I. a demonstrative adjective, the, that. 1. marking an object as before-mentioned or already well-known a. wilh substantives Se Hǽlend, Mt. Kmbl. 3, 13. Se steorra stód ofer ðǽr ðæt cild wæs, 2, 9. Wæs se engel sprecende tó úres Drihtnes méder, Blickl. Homl. 5, 2. Seó heofon biþ gefeallen æt ðǽm feówer endum middangeardes, 93, 4. Seó eorþe, Lchdm. iii. 254, 15. Seó sǽ and se móna geþwǽrlǽcaþ him betweónan, 268, 12. Seó lyft the air, 272, 20. On ðone gemánan ðæs brýdguman and ðære brýde, Blickl. Homl. 11, 5. Hé fægnode ðæs miclan weorces ðærre ceastre, Past. 4; Swt. 39, 15. Ðæt mon ða earce bere on ðǽm saglum, 22; Swt. 171, 12. Mid ðý selflíce se Déma biþ geniéded tó ðæm ierre, 4; Swt. 39, 10. Ðý þearlan dóme (by the severe sentence just mentioned ) hé forleás his mennisce, Swt. 39, 23. Ðæt mæsten is gemǽne tó ðám (those mentioned in the charter ) án and twentigum hídum, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. v. 319, 29. On háte ða ahsan, Lchdm. ii. 32, 13. b. with adjectives Se dumba spræc, Mt. Kmbl. 9, 33. Ðá æthrán hé ðæs blindan hand, Mk. Skt. 8, 23. c. with numerals Ða þrý cómon, Cd. Th. 221, 24; Dan. 93. Ðína ágna treówa and seó godcunde lufu and se tóhopa, ða þreó ðé ne lǽtaþ geortréwan be ðam écan lífe, Bt. 10; Fox 32, 8. d. with proper names Se Iohannes the same John (A. V.), Mt Kmbl. 3, 4. Se (the one in question) Cynewulf oft feaht wið Bretwalum . . . Hé wolde ádræfan ænne æþeling, se wæs Cyneheard háten, and se Cyneheard wæs ðæs (the one previously mentioned ) Sigebryhtes bróður, Chr. 755; Erl. 48, 24-28. Féng Carl tó ðam westríce . . . se Carl wæs Hlóþwíges sunu, se Hlóþwíg wæs Cailes bróður, se wæs luþyttan fæder, . . . and hié wǽron Hlóþwíges suna. Se Hlóþwíg wæs ðæs aldan Carles sunu; se Carl wæs Pippenes sunu, 885; Erl. 84, 10-17. Seó Asia (Asia Minor ), Ors. l, 1; Swt. 12, 11. Him losep gehealp. From ðæm losepe . . . , 1, 5; Swt. 32, 28. 2. marking an object which is further described a. by an adjective Se heofonlíca cyning, Blickl. Homl. 5, 18. Mín se heofonlíca Fæder, Mt. Kmbl. 18, 35. Se earma upáhafena, Past. 26; Swt. 183, 13. Se dysega ungeþyldega, 33; Swt. 220, 9. Ðeó deáþberende uncyst, Blickl. Homl. 65, 13. Mid hire ðære yfelan sceónesse beswác ðone ǽrestan wífmon, 5, l. Ðone yfelan fæsðrǽdan willan fulneáh nán wind ne mæg áwecgan, Past. 33; Swt. 225, 6. ¶ The weak declension usually occurs with the demonstrative, but in the following instances strong forms are found :-- On ðam seócum men, Lchdm. ii. 282, 11. Snáw cymþ of ðam þynnun wǽtan, iii. 278, 23. Of ðam hátum bæðe, Homl. Th. i. 58, 29. Ða gleáwe sǽgenga[n] hig understandaþ, Anglia viii. 327, 21. Ða anbestungne saglas, Past. 22; Swt. 171, 11. For ðære sceáwungge ðara ungesewenlícra þinga, 16; Swt. 99, 8. Ðara eádigra apostola, Bd. 5, 19; S. 637, 31. Orhlyte ðæra háligra mihta, Homl. Th. i. 346, 26. b. by a pronoun Mon sceal suá manian ðæt se hiera folgoþ hine ne óþhebbe, Past. 28, 1; Swt. 189, 17. Ða míne sǽlþa and se mín weorðscipe, Bt. 10; Fox 30, 14-15. Ǽnigne dǽl ðara ðínra gesǽlþa, 11, l; Fox 32, 26. c. by a numeral Ðæt þridde gebed, Homl. i. 264, 16. Hyt eall áléd biþ on ðære ánre míle, Ors. l, l; Swt. 20, 32. Ðá áxode se cásere ðone ænne preóst, Homl. Th. ii. 310, 14. Ðis synt ðæra twelf Apostola naman, Mt. Kmbl. 10, 2. Hú mon scule blódlǽse on ðara six fífa ǽlcum on mónþe forgán, Lchdm. ii. 146, 19: 148, 2. d. by a genitive Ðá wæs gesended ðæt goldhord ðæs mægenþrymmes on ðone bend ðæs clǽnan innoþes, Blickl. Homl. 9, 28. Se emnihtes dæg, Lchdm. iii. 256, 26. Néh ðæm clife ðære Reádan Sǽs, Ors. l, l; Swt. 12, 19. Ða diógolnesse ðæs þriddan hefones, Past. 16; Swt. 99, 8. e. by a phrase Ðara twentiges hída landgemǽra tóBurhtúne. . . . Ðara . vii. hída landgemǽra æt mæðelgáres byrig, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 429, 25-32. f. by an appositive Saul se cyning, Past. 3 ; Swt. 35, 14. Membrað se ent . . . Ninus se cyning, Ors. 2, 4; Swt. 74, 9-10. Ðæt land Cilia . . . seó sǽ Euxinus . . . se héhsta beorg Olimpus . . . Nilus seó eá ; . . . néh ðam beorge Athlans, 1. 1 ; Swt. 12, 11-21. (g) by a clause, v. IV. :-- Eart ðú se Beowulf, se ðe wið Brecan wunne, Beo. Th. 1016; B. 506. Seó Ægyptus ðe ús neár is, Ors. 1, 1 ; Swt. 12, 16. Seó menigo ðe beforan férde. Blickl. Homl. 71, 9. Sý ðæs cynnes orf ðe hit sý, L. Ff.; Th. i. 226, 3. Gif esne eorlcundne mannan ofslæhþ ðane ðe sió (whoever it be ), L. H. E. 1; Th. i. 26, 8: 3; Th. i. 28, 4. Ða hwíle ðe hié tó nánre óðerre note ne mǽgen. Past. pref. ; Swt. 7, 12. Oft mon forlǽt ðone ege and ða fæsðrǽdnesse ðe hé mid ryhte on him innan habban scolde, 4, I ; Swt. 37, 17. Ða twelfe ðe mid him wǽron, Mk. Skt. 4, 10. Ða fíf hláfas ðe se cnapa bær getácniaþ ða fíf béc ðe Moyses sette, Homl. Th. i. 186, 13. Hwæt ða sume dreógaþ, ðe ða wræclástas wídost lecgaþ, Exon. Th. 309, 13; Seef. 56. (h) by a clause in apposition :-- Ne sceal hé ðæt án dón, ðæt hé ána wacie, . Past. 28; Swt. 193, 21. (i) by relation to other objects mentioned :-- Se ðe ne gǽþ æt ðam gete intó sceápa falde, Jn. Skt. 10, 1. Hig gefyldon ða [fatu] óþ ðone brerde, 2, 7. Irnende on ðæt sond, and ðonne besince eft on ðæt sand, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 12, 22. 3. with adjectives used as epithets Salomonn se snottra. Past. 4, 1; Swt. 37, 16. Hit is Hǽlend se Nazarenisca, Blickl. Homl. 15, 19. Sidroc eorl se alda and Sidroc eorl se gioncga, Chr. 871 ; Erl. 74, 22. Eádweard se langa, Byrht. Th. 139, 53 ; By. 273. 4. marking an object as the representative of a class Ys seó æx tó ðæra treówa wyrtruman ásett, Mt. Kmbl. 3, 10. Hú nys seó sáwl sélre ðonne mete, 6, 25. Ða líchamlícan gód bióþ forcúþran ðonne ðære sáwle cræftas . . . Seó fægernes ðæs líchoman geblissaþ ðone mon. Bt. 24, 3 ; Fox 84, 5-8. Ǽr ðan ðe ðæs dæges lenge oferstíge ða niht, Lchdm. iii. 256, 13. Bere is swíðe earfoþe tó gearcigenne, and ðeáhhwæðere fét ðone mann, ðonne hé gearo biþ. Homl. Th. i. 188, 5. (4 a) marking genus :-- Se mon homo, Bd. I. 27; S. 497, 40. Se mann ána gǽþ uprihte, Bt. 41, 6; Fox 254, 29. 5. marking a definite whole or a class of objects Hié hátaþ ða landmen (the natives) Nuchul, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 12, 24. On ódre wisan mon sceal nianian ða blíðan, on óðre ða unrótan . . . ða underþiéddan . . . ða ofer ððre gesettan . . . ða woroldwísan . . . ða dysegan, Past. 23 ; Swt. 175, 14-17. Ðæra Persiscra cyning . . . gegaderode of ðam Saraceniscum micele fyrde, Jud. Thw. 162, 23. Hé clypode ða gelaðodan tó ðam gyftum. . . . Hé sǽde ðam gelaðedon, Mt. Kmbl. 22, 3-4. 6. with abstract nouns where modern English would not use the article Sió hǽlu ðone mon gedéþ lustbǽrne, Bt. 24, 3; Fox 84, 9. Gif se weorðscipe and se anweald gód wǽre, 16, 3; Fox 54, 8. Hé ða geþyld ðe is módur ealra mægena for ðæm unwrence ðære ungeþylde forlét, Past. 33, 1; Swt. 215, 20. Þurh ða wilnunga ðære woroldáre, 3; Swt. 33, 8. On ðæm gesundfulnessum ðæt mód wierð upáhafen; and on ðǽm earfeðum hit biþ geeáðmédd. On ðære gesundfulnesse mon forgiett his selfes; on ðǽm gesuincum hé sceal hine selfne geþencean. On ðære orsorgnesse . . . on ðǽm earfoðum. . . . Suíðe oft monn biþ ðære earfoðnesse láreówdóme underþiéded, Swt. 35, 4-10. (6 a) where an abstraction is personified :-- Se Wísdóm and seó Gesceádwísnes, Bt. 3; Fox 6, 13 (and often). II. as a demonstrative pronoun, he, she, it, that, 1. referring to a person or thing Se wæs betera ðonne ic, Beo. Th. 943; B. 469. On ðám ys sǽd, and ðæt sweart, Lchdm. i. 278, Heó hafaþ leáf sinewealte and ða bitere, 290, 18. Ðonne hí eów éhtaþ on ðysse byrig, fleóþ on óðre; and ðonne hí on ðære eów éhtaþ, fleóþ on ða þryddan. Mt. Kmbl. 10, 23. Hét se cásere hine lǽdan tó his deófolgelde, ðæt hé ðæm gulde, Shrn. 88, 22. Heó hafaþ stelan and ðone on bógum geþúfne, Lchdm. i. 298, 20. Ðá swungon hí ðæne, Mk. Skt. 12, 3. Hé sorgaþ ymb ða and biþ ðara suíðe gemyndig, Past. 4, 1 ; Swt. 37, 19. Ðá wǽron ealle ða wíf gelaðede; ðara wæs iii hund and hundeahtatig. Ors. 3, 6; Swt. 108, 32. Ðæt hé nánes þinges búton ðǽm þurfe, Bt. 24, 4; Fox 86, 6. Gesyllan .xv. leaxas and ða góde, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 296, 1. 2. referring to the subject dealt with in a clause that, it: — Gif gé gesáwen hwelce mús ðæt wǽre hláford ofer óðre mýs . . . hú wunderlíc wolde eów ðæt þincan, hwelce cehhettunge gé woldon ðæs habban, Bt. 16, 2 ; Fox 52, 1-4. Hwylc ðæs cyninges geleáfa wǽre, ðæt æfter his deáþe mid wundrum wæs gecýþed, Bd. 3, 19; S. 533, 15. Ðæt hé ðæs (for praying in a certain place) hæfde méde wið God, Shrn. 88, 32. Hé ðæs (for beheading a saint) dyde hreówsunga, 89, 18 : Ps. Th. 28, 7 : 30, 1. Ic hit scortlíce secgan scyle, hwá ðæs (the stirring up of strife) ordfruman wǽron. Ors. 5, 9; Swt. 232, 18. Hú his gesceafta weaxaþ and eft waniaþ, ðonne ðæs tíma cymþ, Bt. 34, 10 ; Fox 150, 13. Heora æfterfyligendas wǽron deófolgylde folgiende, for ðam Mellitus and Iustus of Breotene gewiton, Bd. 2, 5 ; S. 506, 3. Nis hit lang (feor) tó ðon, 4, 24; S. 599, 5. Gif eáran sýn innan sáre, and ðǽr wyrms sý, on dó ða ylcan sealfe, heó ys swýðe gód tó ðam, Lchdm. i. 358, 17. Se hearpere suíðe ungelíce ða strengas styreþ, and mid ðý gedéþ ðæt . . . , Past. 23; Swt. 175, 7. (2 a) in apposition with a clause : see also V. Wé nyston ðæt hé ðæs girnan wolde, ðæt wé úrne bróður ðyder lǽddon, Gen. 43, 7. Hié wǽron gebrocede mid ceápes cwilde, ealles swíðost mid ðæm, ðæt manige ðara sélestena cynges þéna forþférdon, Chr. 897 ; Erl. 94, 32. Ðá næs long tó ðon, ðæt wé tó sumre eá cwóman, Nar. 8, 19. Næs lang tó ðý ðæt his bróðor ðyses lǽnan lífes tíman geendode, Lchdm. iii. 434, 25. Se scamfæsta hæfþ genóh on ðæm tó his bettrunge, ðæt his láreów hine suíðe lythwón gemyndgige his unþeáwa. Past. 31 ; Swt. 207, 3. Wé leornedon æt him ðæt wé flugen ða óliccunga ðisses middangeardes, and eác ðæt, ðæt wé his ege ús ne ondréden, 3; Swt. 33, 23. 3. dæt referring to an object of any gender or number Ðæt (se ǽwelm ealra gúda) eart ðú, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 132, 30. Hé ðæt is, se ða gebundenan út álǽdde. St. And. 14, 33. Ðæt is mid Estum þeáw, ðæt. . . , Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 21, 11. Ðæt is Iohannes gewitnes, Jn. Skt. 1, 19. Godes bearn, ðæt wǽron góde men, Gen. 6, 2. Ða eágan, ðæt beóþ ða láreówas, and se hrycg, ðæt sint ða hiéremenn, Past. 1; Swt. 29, 12 : Nar. 34, 2, 7. Ðæt wǽron eall Finnas, Ors. 1,1; Swt. 17, 26. Ðæt wǽron fiéftiéne hund þúsend monna, 3, 9; Swt. 128, 22. (3 a) ðæt is=there is; — Ðæt nis nán man ðætte sumes eácan ne þurfe, Bt. 24, 4; Fox 86, 6. 4. one in contrast with another For hwí se góda lǽce selle ðam hálum men séftne drenc, and óðrum hálum strangne, Bt. 39, 9; Fox 226, 10. Ðonne lufaþ sum ðæt sum elles hwæt one man likes one thing, another something else, Bt. 33, 2 ; Fox 122, 24. III. as a relative Sum hírédes ealdor wæs, se (qui) plantode wíngerd, Mt. Kmbl. 21, 33. Nys nán þing dýhle, ðæt ne wurðe geswutelod, 10, 26. Ðonne tódǽlaþ hí his feoh, ðæt tó láfe biþ, Ors. 1. 1.; Swt. 20, 28. Gif ðú sý his discipul, se is cweden Crist, St. And. 8, 13. Ondrǽd ðé Drihten and his ródtácn, beforan ðæm forhtigaþ heofon and eorþe, 20, 25. Ðæt ic eów secge on þýstrum, secgaþ hyt on leóhte, Mt. Kmbl. 10, 27. Manige synt on ðisse ceastre, ða sculou geleófan on mínne naman, St. And. 12, 7. Ill a. Ðæt gé on eáre gehýraþ bodiaþ uppan hrófum, Mt. Kmbl. 10, 27. Ðonne ðú hæfdest ðæt ðú noldest, oððe næfdest ðæt ðú woldest, Bt. 26, 1; Fox 90, 31. Ðæt hí tóweorpen ðæt God geteohhad hæfþ tó wyrcanne, Ps. Th. 10, 3. Cum and geseoh ðæt hié mé dóþ, St. And. 16, 34. ¶ where the construction is incomplete :-- Eác sculon wiotan ða ofergesettan ðæt ðæt hié unáliéfedes þurhteóþ, swǽ maningra wíta hié beóþ wyrðe, swǽ swǽ hié manna on wón gebrohten, Past. 28 ; Swt. 190, 6. IV. (see also I. 2 g) in correlative sentences where antecedent and relative are represented 1. by se . . . ðe Gif him gebyrige ðæt hé on ðæs hwæt befoo ðe wið his willan sié, Past. 28; Swt. 198, 23. Ne þearf hé nánes þinges búton ðæs ðe hé on him selfum hæfþ, Bt. 24, 4 ; Fox 86, 8. Ða gife ic wylle tó ðon dón ðe ic heóld I will put the gift to the use for which I kept it, Guthl. 20 ; Gdwin. 84, 12. (1 a) by se. . . ðe hé : — Forðon mæg gehycgan se ðe his heorte deáh, Cd. Th. 282, 8; Sat. 283. Ðæs bihofaþ se ðe him hálig gǽst wísaþ, Exon. Th. 123, 34 ; Gú. 332. 2. by se . . . se Se ilca se monegum yfelum geárode, Past. 3; Swt. 35, 24. Ðonne cymeþ se man se ðæt swiftoste hors hafaþ, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 20, 36. Se þurhwunaþ óþ ende, se byþ hál, Mt. Kmbl. 10, 22. Gif ðæt wæs, ðæt seldon gelomp, Bd. 3, 5; S. 527, 2. Beó ðæt þinga, ðæt hit beó, ðæt se man tó note wyrcean wille, Btwk. 222, 8. Hé for Godes ege déþ ðæt ðæt hé déþ, Past. 22 ; Swt. 169, 4. Herigan ðæt ðæt hé fæsðrǽdes wiste, 32, 2 ; Swt. 213, 7. (2 a) by se . . . se hé :-- Ðæt is se Abraham, se him ( = ðe him to whom ) engla God naman ásceóp, Cd. Th. 201, 30; Exod. 380. 3. by se . . . se ðe: — Ðys ys se be ðam ðe gecweden ys, Mt. Kmbl. 3, 3. Se ðe brýde hæfþ, se is brýdguma, Jn. Skt. 3, 29. Seó ilce burg, seó ðe mǽst wæs, seó is nú læst, Ors. 2, 4; Swt. 74, 22. Ðæt mon ne wæs, se ðe him ætýwde, Bd. 2, 12 ; S. 514, 25. Ðæt ðe ácenned is of flǽsce, ðæt is flǽsc; and ðæt ðe of gáste ácenned is, ðæt is gást, Jn. Skt. 3, 6. Ða, ða ðe hi, qui, Rtl. 5, 33. Ðæs monnes nama wæs, se ðe hí beheáfdade, Dorotheos, Shrn. 89, 17. Ða eallreordan þeóde, ðara ðe hí ða gereorde ne cúþan, gesécan. Bd. 1. 23 ; S. 485, 33. Ðætte tǽlwyrðes sié, ðæt hié ðæt tǽlen, Past. 28 ; Swt. 195, 24. Hí námon him wíf of eallum ðám, ða ðe hig gecuron, Gen. 6, 2. (3 a) irregular constructions Se, seðe ǽr worolde rícsode on hefenum, hit is áwriten, Iudéas woldon hine dón tó cyninge, Past. 3; Swt. 33, 12. Se ilca, seðe wénde ðæt hé wǽre ofer ealle óðere menn, him gebyrede . . . , 4; Swt. 39, 24. Se hondwyrm, se ðe secgas seaxe delfaþ, Exon. Th. 427, 24; Rä. 41, 96. Se biþ leófast, se ðe hym God syleþ gumena ríce tó gehealdenne, 326, 21; Víd. 132. Cf. Hé weorðeþ eádig se ðe hine God geceóseþ beatus quem elegisti, Ps. Th. 64, 4. 4. by se . . . se se: — Swá þyncþ him, ðæt se hié him niédscylde sceolde, se se hié him sealde, Past. 9; Swt. 57, 6. Ðæt ðæt lator biþ, ðæt hæfþ angin, Homl. Th. i. 284, 7. Ǽlc mon tiohhaþ him ðæt tó sélestum goode ðæt ðæt hé swíðost lufaþ, Bt. 33, 2 ; Fox 122, 23. (4 a) irregular Se Drihten, se ðæs ( = ðe his) setl ys on heofenum, Ps. Th. 10, 4. V. in adverbial or conjunctional forms. In phrases such as for . ðam ðe the pronominal element was represented later by that, as in Shakspere, and is now usually omitted altogether, (i) Nó (nalses, nallas no) ðæt án ðæt . . . ac not only . . . but also, Bt. 21 ; Fox 74, 17 : 22, 1; Fox 76, 13: 37, 3; Fox 190, 18: Guthl. 5; Gdwin. 30, 23. 2. Ðæs a. in reference to time, or sequence of events, marking the pointfrom which measurement is made, after Sume men secgen ðæt hire ǽwielme sié on westende Affrica, and ðonne folraðe ðæs (very soon after ) sié eást irnende on ðæt sond, Ors. 1. 1; Swt. 12, 21. Fulraðe ðæs ic clipode tó him, Bt. 22, l; Fox 76, 8. Ðæs on morgen the next morning, Ors. 3, 4; Swt. 104, 5. Ðæs on ðǽm æfterran geáre anno ab hoc proximo, 4, 6; Swt. 172, 17. Ðæs ymb iii geár tertio anno, Swt. 176, 24. Ðæs ymb iii niht, Chr. 871; Erl. 74, 6, 14, 25. Wífes wer gif hé forþfærþ ymbe xii mónaþ ðæs heó mót niman óðerne mortuo viro, post annum licet mulieri alium accipere, L. Ecg. C. 19; Th. ii. 146, 10. ¶ Ðæs ðe :-- Ðæs ðe ðá seó costung gestilled wæs, ðá wǽron forþgongende ða geleáfsuman, Bd. 1, 8; S. 479, 19: 3, 22; S. 552, 39. Sóna ðæs ðe hí on ðis eálond cómon, ðá compedon hí, 1, 12; S. 480, 29. Ðæs ðe . . . ðá sóna, 5, 6; S. 620, 11. Æfter siextegum daga ðæs ðe ðæt timber ácorfen wæs intra sexagesimum diem quam arbores caesae erant, Ors. 4, 6; Swt. 172, 4. Hé ðá gyt lifde æfter ændlefan geárum ðæs ðe [hé] wæs bebyrged, Shrn. 82, 15. Ðæt wæs ymb twelf mónaþ ðæs ðe hié ǽr hider cómon, Chr. 894; Erl. 93, 14: 895; Erl. 93, 32: 896; Erl. 94, 23. b. marking degree, proportion, so (cf. colloquial use of that=so, with adjectives) Nǽre flód ðæs deóp, merestreám ðæs micel, ðæt his mín mód getweóde, Cd. Th. 51, 26, 27; Gen. 832, 833. Nó ðæs fród leofaþ gumena bearna ðæt ðone grund wite (so wise as to know ), Beo. Th. 2737; B. 1366. Wurde ðú ðæs gewitleás, ðæt ðú þonc ne wisses, Exon. Th. 90, 12; Cri. 1473. Nis ǽnig ðæs horsc ne ðæs hygecræftig ðe ðín fromcyn mǽge geséþan, 15, 24; Cri. 241. Wé ús wið him sceldan ðæs ðe wé mihton we protected ourselves against them as far as we could, Nar. 14, 29: Ps. Th. 10, 3: Homl. Th. ii. 550, 20: L. Eth. v. 23; Th. i. 310, 11: vi. 1; Th. i. 314, 6: Lchdm. ii. 86, 23. Næs ic nǽfre git náne hwíle swá emnes módes, ðæs ðe ic gemunan mǽge (from what, or as far as, I can remember), Bt. 26, 1; Fox 90, 25. ¶ with comparatives :-- Ðá clypodon hig ðæs ðe má (so much the more ), Mt. Kmbl. 20, 31: Mk. Skt. 10, 26. Sió wund biþ ðæs ðe wierse and ðý máre, Past. 17; Swt. 123, 18: 18; Swt. 131, 16. Ðæt hié wénden ðæt hié ðæs ðe (tanto) untǽlwyrðran wǽren ðe (quanta) hié wénden ðæt hé nyste hira leóhtmódnesse, 32, 2; Swt. 215, 1. (b I) with :-- Tó ðæs mycel ðæt . . . so great that . . . , Bd. 1, 1; S. 474, 13. Wæs seó eorþe tó ðæs heard and tó ðæs stánihte ðæt . . . , 4. 28; S. 605, 27. Nis nán tó ðæs lytel ǽwelm, ðæt hé ða sǽ ne geséce, Bt. 24, 1; Fox 80, 24. Hé him ðæs leán forgeald tó ðæs ðe hé in ræste geseah Grendel lícgan he gave him reward for that so, or to such a degree, that he saw Grendel lie dead, Beo. Th. 3175; B. 1585. c. marking agreement, according to what, as Wé him andswaredon ðæs ðe hé ús áxode respondimus juxta id quod fuerat sciscitatus, Gen. 43, 7. Hú hé him ondwyrdan sceolde ðæs hé hiene áscade quid sibi tamquam consulenti responderi velit, Ors. 3, 9; Swt. 126, 30. Ðæs ðe (ut ) mé gesawen is, Bd. 1, 25; S. 487, 12: Bt. 24, 3; Fox 84, 10. Swá efne ðæs ðe ita ut, Bd. 1, 34; S. 499, 20. And se mon biþ ðæs ðe swá tó cweþanne sí ǽghwæðer ge gehæfted ge freó itaque homo est, ut ita dixerim, captivus et liber, 1, 27; S. 497, 40. Ðæs ðe béc secgaþ as books say, St. And. 26, 6. d. because, since Waa mé ðæs ic swigode vae mihi quia tacui, Past. 49, 2; Swt. 379, 24. 3. Ðæm, ðam, ðan, ðon (ðe). a. with a comparative Gif hé ne biþ ðon raþor gelácnod, Lchdm. ii. 200, 20. b. with prepositions Æfter ðæm ðe Rómeburg getimbred wæs urbe condita, Ors. 4, 6; Swt. 170, 19 (and often). Æfter ðæm ðe Cartainiense gefliémde wǽron hié wilnedon friþes Carthaginenses, fracti bellis, pacem poposcerunt, Swt. 174, 23. Ǽr ðæm ðe Rómeburh getimbred wǽre, 1, 3; Swt. 32, 1 (and often) Ǽr ðam ðe donec, Mt. Kmbl. 12, 20. Ǽr ðon, Past. 33, 1; Swt. 215, 15. Wurdon viiii folc*-*gefeoht gefohten . . . and bútan ðam ðe him cyninges þegnas oft ráde onridon ðe mon ná ne rímde there were nine pitched battles . . . and besides king's thanes often made raids upon them, that were not counted, Chr. 871; Erl. 76, 10. For ðæm ðe 1. for, because Eádige synt ða líðan; for ðam ðe (quoniam ) hí eorþan águn, Mt. Kmbl. 5, 4. For ðam, 5, 3. For ðon ðe quia, 7, 13. Ða Deniscan sǽton ðǽr behindan, for ðæm hiora cyning wæs gewundod, Chr. 894; Erl. 91, 2. For ðæm ðe, 91, 28. For ðam, Ps. Th. 9, 13. Ðý . . . for ðam therefore . . . because, Bt. 36, 7; Fox 184, 15. 2. therefore Hé for ðæm nolde, ðý hé mid his folce getrúwode ðæt hé hiene beswícan mehte, Ors. 2, 4; Swt. 76, 8: Bt. 38, 2; Fox 188, 16. For ðon (therefore ) ic ðé bebióde, Past. pref.; Swt. 5, 1. 3. for the purpose, in order Geþence gé hwæt gé sién; for ðæm ðæt gé eówer mód gemetgien pensa, quod es; ut se spiritus temperet, Past. 21, 4; Swt. 159, 14. Mid ðæm ðe whilst, when, as, of simultaneous events :-- Mid ðæm ðe ða burgware swá geómorlíc angin hæfdon ðá com se cyning self mid his scipe inter haec procedit ipse de navi sua imperator, Ors. 4, 5; Swt. 166, 14. Mid ðam ðe se apostol stóp intó ðære byrig, ðá bær man him tógeánes ánre wydewan líc, Homl. Th. i. 60, 11. Ongemang, onmang ðam (ðe) whilst, meanwhile :-- Ongemang ðæm ðe hié wilniaþ ðæt hié gifule byncen, Past. 45, 3; Swt. 339, 24. Seó sunne sáh tó setle onmang ðam ðe hí on wópe wæron, Homl. Skt. i. 23, 246: Chr. 1105; Erl. 240, 4. Ongemang ðam (interea ) his leorningcnihtas hine bǽdon, Jn. Skt. 4, 31. Tó ðam 1. marking degree so, to such a degree Ðá wǽron hié tó ðæm gesárgode, ðæt hié ne mehton Súð-Seaxna lond útan berówan, Chr. 897; Erl. 96, 8. Men tó ðam dyrstige ðæt hí ðæt gold nimen men so bold as to take the gold, Nar. 35, 9: Bt. 11, 1; Fox 32, 32. Nis nán tó ðam ungelýfedlíc spel . . . ðæt ic hym ne gelífe, Shrn. 196, 18. Tó ðam ðú mé hæfst gerétne ðæt . . . , Bt. 22, 1; Fox 76, 11. 2. marking purpose, to the end (that) Tó ðæm ðæt (ut ) hé forleóse heora gemynd, Ps. Th. 33, 16: 10, 2. Ne com hé ná tó ðam on eorþan ðæt him mon þénade, Past. 17; Swt. 121, 8. Tó ðæm ðæt, pref.; Swt. 5, 3. Ða cwóman tó ðon ðæt hié woldan ús wundigan nos adlacessere temptabant, Nar. 22, 17. Wið ðam ðe in return for, on condition (that), connecting two clauses containing mutual concessions, v. wið :-- Se cyng and his witan him (the Danes ) gafol and metsunga behétan wið ðam ðe hí heora hergunga geswicon, Chr. 1011; Erl. 144, 22: Past. 36, 6; Swt. 255, 3, 9. 4. Ðæt in óþ ðæt. v. óþ, II. 2. 5. Ðý, ðí, ðig 1. therefore, so Ðý him is micel þearf, ðonne hé tela lǽrþ, ðæt hé eác tela doo, Past. 28; Swt. 193, 12; Bt. 36, 7; Fox 184, 14. Ðý ideo, L. Ecg. P. i. 15; Th. ii. 178, 29. Ðig itaque, Th. ii. 176, 15. 2. because Wénst ðú, ðæt ealle ða þing ðe góde sint, for ðý góde sint, ðý hí habbaþ hwæthwegu gódes on him, 34, 9; Fox 146, 30: Ors. 2, 4; Swt. 76, 8. 3. with comparatives, the, any Búton ðú mé ðý gesceádlícor óðer gerecce, Bt. 39, 2; Fox 214, 7. Hió ne biþ ðý neár ðære sǽ ðe hió biþ on midne dæg, 39, 3; Fox 214, 28. Ðæt hié hira selfra ne ágon ðý máre geweald ðe óðerra monna, Past. 33, 1; Swt. 215, 13. Hié woldon ðæt hér ðý mára wísdóm on londe wǽre ðý wé má geþeóda cúðon, Past. pref.; Swt. 5, 24. 2. with prepositions. For ðý (ðe), a. therefore For ðý . . . ðý therefore . . . because, Bt. 34, 9; Fox 146, 30. For ðý . . . for ðæm therefore . . . because, Past. 21; Swt. 157, 10. b. because Ðæt wæs for ðý ðe hié wǽron benumene ðæs ceápes, Chr. 895; Erl. 93, 17. Mid ðý (ðe) a. of time, when, as Mid ðý ðe hé ðis gebed gecweden hæfde, Blickl. Homl. 229, 27: 231, 7. Sumre tíde mid ðý ðe wé wǽron mid úrum Drihtne, 235, 2. Mid ðí ðe, 237, 17. Mid ðí hé ðis cwæð, hé ástáh on heofonas, 237, 15. Mid ðý cum, Bd. 4, 24; S. 598, 33. Mið ðý cum, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 24, 15 (and often). b. denoting a cause or consequence, when, as, since Mid ðý Peohtas wíf næfdon, hí bǽdon him wífa fram Scottum, Bd. 1, 1; S. 474, 19. c. though Gif hé eów forhogige and eów ne wylle árísan tógeánes mid ðý eówer má is sin autem vos spreverit, nec coram vobis adsurgere voluerit, cum sitis numero plures, 2, 2; S. 503, 13. Tó ðý . . . ðæt to the end that :-- Ne com hé for ðý ðæt hé wolde his eorþlíce ríce mid riccetere him tó geteón; ac tó ðí hé com ðæt hé wolde his heofenlíce ríce geleáffullum mannum gyfan, Homl. Th. i. 82, 20-24: ii. 226, 9. Ne dó ná se Godes þeówa Godes þénunge for sceattum, ac tó ðý ðæt hé geearnige ðæt éce wuldor þurh ðæt, L. Ælf. C. 27; Th. ii. 352, 23. [Gothic and Icelandic have forms corresponding with the nom. m. f. se, seó, and O. Sax. also has a masculine se; in other dialects the dental forms prevail throughout. In the Lindisfarne Gospels ðe (=ipse, Mt. Kmbl. 15, 24), ðiú (=quae, 24, 15) are used, but also se ðe (=qui, 6, 4). In later English þe, þeo replace se, seó.]
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