þæt
Morphological Analysis
Wordclass: Conjunction
Related §§ in Wright's OE Grammar:
In the OE text, the length is:indicated by acute accentsindicated by macronsnot indicated.
þæt
conj. That. I. introducing substantive clauses, 1. where the clause is equivalent to a noun in the nominative, and a. stands as the subject of the verb in the main clause Genóh byþ ðam leorningcnihte þæt (þætte, Lind. Rush.) hé sý swylce his láreów, Mt. Kmbl. 10. 25. On ðæs engles wordum wæs gehýred þæt þurh hire beorþor sceolde beón gehǽled eall wífa cynn, Blickl. Homl. 5, 23 : Andr. Kmbl. 181; An. 91. Hú mænige geár synt þæt ðú on ðysúm wéstene eardodest, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 513. b. where þæt or hit stands as subject in the main clause Hú hit beón mæg, þæt se Hálga Gást cumeþ ufan on ðé, Blickl. Homl. 7, 35. Þæt geweorþeþ on dómes dæge, þæt hé cymeþ tó démenne cwicum and deádum, 11, 3 : Andr. Kmbl. 1147; An. 574. Ðæt is gedafenlíc, ðæt ðú Dryhtnes word healde, Elen. Kmbl. 2334; El. 1168. Mid ðæm cræfte ðe ðá scondlícost wæs; þæt wæs, þæt hié from heora wícstówum under ðære eorþan dulfon, Ors. 2, 8; Swt. 90, 29. Nis þæt feor heonon, þæt se mere standeþ, Beo. Th. 2729; B. 1362. Hit is for seofon and feówertigum wintrum, þæt ic of ðære hálgan byrig út fór, Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 516. c. where it further explains a noun in the main clause Ðæs gástes wæstmas synd ða gódan ðeáwas, þæt se man lufige God ... and beó gesibsum, Homl. Skt. i. 17, 53. Wæs ðæt weátácen wíde gefrége, þæt hié ðæs cnihtes cwealm gesóhton, Andr. Kmbl. 2243; An. 1123. 2. where the clause is equivalent to a noun in the accusative, and a. stands as object to the verb in the main clause God geseah þæt hit gód wæs, Gen. 1, 4. Ic wát ðæt ðú eart gecýðed, Elen. Kmbl. 1627; El. 815. b. where it is in apposition to þæt or hit standing as object in the main clause Gif his sunu and ðæs sunsunu þæt begyten, þæt hé swá micle landes habbaþ, L. Wg. 11; Th. i. 188, 23. Wé leornedon æt him ðæt wé flugen . . . and eác ðæt, ðæt wé his ege ús ne ondréden, Past. 3; Swt. 33, 23, Ic þæt wát, þæt ús gescildeþ weoruda Dryhten, Andr. Kmbl. 867; An. 434. c. where it further explains the object of the verb in the main clause Helmstán ða undǽde gedyde, ðæt hé Æðerédes belt forstæl, Chart. Th. 169, 19 : Elen. Kmbl. 989; El. 496. Ǽlc man sylle ðone áð, ðæt hé nelle þeóf beón, L. C. S. 21; Th. i. 388, 7. Ic bebeóde wundor geweorðan, ðæt ðeós onlícnes eorðan séce, Andr. Kmbl. 1461; An. 731. (2 a) where the subject of the clause is omitted, and the clause taken with the accusative of the main clause is equivalent to the accusative and infinitive construction :-- Þeóf ðone ðe wé geáxian, þæt ful sý, L. Ath. v. 1; Th. i. 228, 13. Woruld-gerihta ic wille þæt standan on ǽlcum leódscipe, L. Edg. S. 2; Th. i. 272, 23. Se ðe mon gesihþ ðæt stronglíc weorc wyrcþ, Bt. 16, 3; Fox 54,29 : Homl. Th. i. 234, 3. Gif gé gesáwen hwelce mús þæt wǽre hláford ofer óþre mýs, Bt. 16, 2; Fox 52, 2. Ealle ða weód ðe hé geseó ðæt ðám æcerum derigen, 23; Fox 78, 23. Swá fela manna swá man wite þæt ungelygne sýn, L. Ath. iv. 1; Th. i. 222, 10. 3. where the clause is equivalent to a noun in the genitive or dative. a. where in the main clause is a verb, verbal noun, or adjective taking after it such a case, and a. where the substantive clause stands as object Ǽnig ne wénde, ðæt hé lifgende land begéte, Andr. Kmbl. 755; An. 378. Saga þonc ðæt ic his módor gewearð, Exon. Th. 13, 30; Cri. 210. Is nú þearf micel þæt wé wísfæstra wordum hýran, Andr. Kmbl. 2335; An. 1169. Ic áhebbe míne hand . . . þæt is ne underfó ánne þwang I lift my hand (in testimony of this) that I will not take a thing, Gen. 14, 23. Ðonne hió geornast biþ þæt heó áfǽre fleógan, Ps. Th. 89, 10 : Elen. Kmbl. 536; El. 268. (a 1) where the subject is omitted :-- Ǽlc mynetere ðe man tíhþ þæt fals feoh slóge, L. Eth. iii. 8; Th. i. 296, 12. b. where the main clause contains a case of a pronoun in apposition to the substantive clause Ne ðurfon wé ðæs wénan, þæt ús wuldorcyning wille eard áléfan, Cd. Th. 272, 5; Sat. 115. Nánne mon ðæs ne tweóþ, ðæt se seó strong, Bt. 16, 3; Fox 54, 28. Hié þæs ðone willan næfdon, þæt hié heora noman hié benǽmon, Ors. 2, 8; Swt. 94, 7. Gif þæs geweorðe gesíðcundne mannan, þæt hé unrihthǽmed genime, L. Wih. 5; Th. i. 38, 4 : Andr. Kmbl. 615; An. 308. Ne magon wé þæs wrace gefremman, þæt hé ús hafaþ ðæs leóhtes bescyrede, Cd. Th. 25, 16; Gen. 394. c. where the clause explains the noun in the main clause Wolde ic ánes tó ðé cræftes neósan, þæt ðú mé getǽhte hú . . ., Andr. Kmbl. 969; An. 485. Gé wiðsócon sóðe and rihte, ðæt in Bethleme bearn cenned wǽre, Elen. Kmbl. 781; El. 391. β. where the clause is equivalent to a phrase, preposition and noun, with adjectival force, a. defining the noun in the main clause Hit wæs ðá se tíma, þæt wínberian rípodon now the time was the time of the first-ripe grapes (A. V.), Num. 13, 21. Nis seó þráh micel, þæt ðé wǽrlogan swencan móton the time of your affliction is not long, Andr. Kmbl. 215; An. 108. Nis seó stund latu, þæt ðé wælreówe wítum belecgaþ, 2423; An. 1213. Nú is se dæg cumen, þæt úre mandryhten mægenes behófaþ, Beo. Th. 5297; B. 2646 : Val. 1, 9. b. in apposition to a pronoun in the main clause Wæs seó hwíl þæs lang, þæt ic Gode þegnode the time of my serving God was long (or þæs = so? ), Cd. Th. 37, 5; Gen. 585. II. introducing clauses expressing end or purpose, that, in order that Sete ðíne hand ofer hí þæt (þætte, Lind. Rush.) heó hál sý ut salva sit, Mk. Skt. 5, 23. Ðǽr se bisceop oft wæs, þæt hé fullade ðæt folc, Bd. 2, 14; S. 518, 15. Se deófol genam ðæt wíf him tó gefylstan, þæt hé ðone hálgan wer ðurh hí geswice, Homl. Th. ii. 454, 1. Hí cómon him tó, þæt hí hine geneósodon, 7. II a. with a negative, that ... not, lest :-- Ic ne underfó ánne þwang, þæt ðú ne secge eft (ne dicas ) : 'Ic gewelegode Abram,' Gen. 14, 23 : Lk. Skt. 8, 12. Waciaþ and gebiddaþ þæt (þætte, Lind. Rush.) gé on costnunge ne gán (ut non intretis ), Mk. Skt. 14, 38. Hig ne eodon intó ðam dómerne, þæt (þætte, Lind. Rush.) hyg nǽron besmitene ut non contaminarentur, Jn. Skt. 18, 28. III. introducing clauses denoting result, manner, kind, degree, 1. where no demonstrative word in the main clause is antecedent to the subordinate clause, that, so that, so as (with infin.) Hú mihtest ðú sittan on middum gemǽnum ríce, þæt ðú ne sceoldest ðæt ilce geþolian ðæt óðre men? Bt. 7, 3; Fox 22, 17 : Homl. Skt. ii. 23 b, 522. Asyrie hæfdon LX wintra and án hund and án þúsend, þæt hit ná búton gewinne næs, Ors. 1, 8; Swt. 42, 4. Nis nǽnigu gecynd, .... ðæt hé ne sý fýres cynnes, Salm. Kmbl. 847; Sal. 423. Hé rád þæt hé wæs et Ceastre he rode so that he was at Worcester, Chart. Th. 71, 11 : Andr. Kmbl. 1576; An. 789 : 1474; An. 738. Man gecwǽman ne mæg twám hláfordum ætsomne, þæt hé ne forseó þone óðerne, Homl. Skt. i. 17, 220, 224. Þǽr is án mǽgð þæt hí magon cyle gewyrcan, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 21, 13. Tó ðám handum ðæt ðæt fel of gǽþ, Lchdm. iii. 114, 3. Hwylc man is þonne ǽfre, þæt hé wéne ... whatever man is there (of such a kind), that he can suppose ... , Wulfst. 214, 14 : Cd. Th. 227, 20; Dan. 189. Hyge wæs oncyrred, þæt hié ne murndon, Andr. Kmbl. 73; An. 37. Gif mon sié dumb oþþe deáf geboren, þæt hé ne mæge his synna andettan, L. Alf. pol. 14; Th. i. 70, 14. Æfter ðære gebysnunge wurdon árǽrede muneclíf mid ðære gehealdsumnysse, þæt hí drohtnian on clǽnnesse, Homl. Th. i. 318, 8. Gewunige hé fæstende, þæt hé wite þæt seó mæsse sý gesungen let him continue his fast so, that he may know the mass has been sung, L. E. I. 39; Th. ii. 438, 3. Gif ceorlisc man geþeó, þæt hé hæbbe .v. hída landes, L. Wg. 9; Th. i. 188, 5 : 10; Th. i. 188, 7. Ða Gotan læssan hwíle hergedan, þæt hié þurh Godes ege þæt hié náþer ne þa burg ne bærndon ne þæs þone willan næfdon .... Ors. 2, 8; Swt. 94, 5. (1 a) where the subject of the clause is omitted :-- Nemne him mon .v. men, and begite þara .v. .1., þæt him mid swerige, L. Ath. i. 9; Th. i. 204, 11. Hwylc is manna þæt feores neóte . . . oððe hwylc manna is þæt his ágene sáwle generige, Ps. Th. 88, 41 : Elen. Kmbl. 750; El. 375 : Exon. Th. 273, 20; Jul. 519. 2. where the clause stands as relative to a preceding demonstrative word Hé lǽrde hig swá þæt (ita ut ) hig wundredon, Mt. Kmbl. 13, 54. Þæt wíte wæs tó þæs strang, ðæt ǽghwelc man sceolde mid sáre on þás world cuman, Blickl. Homl. 5, 28. Swelc wæs þeáw hira þæt hié ǽghwylcne ellþeódigra dydon him tó móse, Andr. Kmbl. 51; An. 26. Swá is þære menigo þeáw, þæt . . . , 355; An. 178. Ðýn mægen is swá mǽre, mihtig Drihten, swá þæt ǽnig ne wát eorðbúende þa deópnesse Drihtnes mihta, ne þæt ǽnig ne wát engla hádes þa heáhnisse heofena kyninges, Hy. 3, 31-35. Gif his sunu and his sunu sunu þæt geþeóþ, þæt hí swá micel landes habban, L. Wg. 11; Th. i. 188, 10. (2 a) where the subject of the clause is omitted :-- Nis nǽnig swá snotor, ne þæs swá gleáw, þæt ásecgan mæge, Cd. Th. 286, 12; Sat. 351. (See also se, V, swá.) IV. introducing clauses expressing cause, reason Hwæt þence gé betwux eów, þæt (forðon, Lind. : forþon þæt, Rush.) gé hláfas nabbaþ why reason ye among yourselves, because ye have brought no bread? Mt. Kmbl. 16, 8. Byþ ðé meorð, þæt ðú ús on láde líðe weorðe, Andr. Kmbl. 551; An. 276. V. where the main clause is not expressed, 1. in narrative Ǽrþon ðe seó heánnes ðæs walles gefylled wǽre, þæt se cyning ofslegen wæs and þæt ylce geweorc Óswalde forlét (some form equivalent to it happened appears necessary before þæt, which word there is nothing in the Latin to suggest : Priusquam altitudo parietis esset consummata, rex ipse occisus opus idem Osualdo reliquit), Bd. 2, 14; S. 517, 31. Ðá æt nýhstan mid fultume his freónda þæt hé gelýfde, 3, 22; S. 552, 26 : 3, 24; S. 556, 21 : 4, 27; S. 604, 32 (cf. 3, 9; S. 533, 16-19 : 4, 3; S. 569, 1-3). And þæs embe áne niht ðæt wé Marian mæssan healdaþ, Menol. Fox 39; Men. 20 and often. Nó þæt ðín aldor wolde Godes goldfatu in gylp beran, Cd. Th. 262, 34; Dan. 754 : 288, 9; Sat. 378 : 304, 24; Sat. 634. 2. in the titles of chapters Caput II. Ðæt se ǽrra Rómwara Cásere Breotene gesóhte, Bd. 1, 2; S. 475, 2 and often. 3. in exclamations Wá þæt ðes tówyrpþ Godes templ, Mt. Kmbl. 27, 40. Eálá þæt nán wuht nis fæste stondendes weorces, Bt. 9; Fox 26, 21 : Met. 9, 55 : 18, 1. Eálá, mín Drihten, þæt ðú eart ælmihtig, 20, 1. Eálá, þæt ic eam ealles leás écan dreámes, Cd. Th. 275, 7; Sat. 168. VI. where the construction is elliptical Þrý dagas tó láfe syndon þæt hié þé willaþ acwellan three days remain before the day comes on which they mean to kill you, Blickl. Homl. 237, 26. [O. Sax. that : O. Frs. thet : O. H. Ger. daz : Icel. at.] v. þætte; conj.
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