under
Morphological Analysis
Wordclass: Preposition
Related §§ in Wright's OE Grammar:
In the OE text, the length is:indicated by acute accentsindicated by macronsnot indicated.
under
prep. adv. Under. I. with dat. 1. local, without motion to bring one object under another, a. where one object has another vertically above it Ða wæteru ðe wǽron under ðære fæstnisse, Gen. 1, 7. Under heofenum, 6, 17. Heó áléde ðone sunu under sumum treówe, 22, 15. Ic ge-eah ðé ðá ðú wǽre under ðam fíctreówe, Jn. Skt. 1, 48. (a 1) where one object is supported by another :-- Mearh under módegum, Elen. Kmbl. 2383; El. 1193. Ðæt scip wæs yrnende under segle, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 19, 34: Andr. Kmbl. 1009; An. 505. Wedera leód heard under helme, Beo. Th. 689; B. 342. Cwom Wealhþeów gán under gyldnum beáge, 2330; B. 1163. b. where one object is at the lower part of another, under, at the foot of Wæs bát under beorge, Beo. Th. 427; B. 211. Ðá com of móre under misthleoþum Grendel gongan, 1425; B. 711. Under weallum, Cd. Th. 146, 6; Gen. 2418. v. neoþan. c. where an object is surrounded, covered, shut in, etc. by another, under, within Heora andwlitan inbewrigenum under loðum, Cd. Th. 95, 29; Gen. 1586. Under lindun, 192, 7; Exod. 228. Under gyrdelse, Exon. Th. 436, 34; Rä. 55, 11: 431, 3; Rä. 45, 2. Under heolstorlocan bídan to wait in prison, Andr. Kmbl. 288; An. 144: Beo. Th. 3860; B. 1928. Heó under breóstcofan bearn ácende, Hy. 10, 16. Hwæþer him yfel þe gód under wunige whether evil or good dwell-within the mind, Exon. Th. 82, 4; Cri. 1333. d. where an object is surrounded by others, among Ne mehton ða senátus nǽnne consul under him findan, Ors. 4, 10; Swt. 196, 10. Sang se wanna fugel under deoreð-sceaftum, Cd. Th. 119, 23; Gen. 1984. 2. local, where motion is implied Mec mín freá sendeþ under sǽlwonge, Exon. Th. 382, 27; Rä. 4, 2. 3. figurative, a. marking subordination, subjection, rule, etc. Sete hig under Aarone, ðæt hig þénigeon him ... Beón hig þénas under Aarone and his sunum, Num. 3, 6, 9. Ða ðe under Alexandre fyrmest wǽron, Ors. 3, 11; Swt. 142, 17. Aulixes hæfde twá ðióda under ðam Kásere, Bt. 38, 1; Fox 194, 4: Met. 26, 5. Under Rómwarum, Hy. 10, 26. Burga fífe wǽran under Norðmannum gebégde, Chr. 942; Erl. 116, 15. Ic eom man under anwealde gesett, and ic hæbbe þegnas under mé, Mt. Kmbl. 8, 9. Ealle ða rícu ðe him under beóð, Bt. 16, 1; Fox 50, 3. Bútan ðam dǽle ðe under Dena onwalde wæs, Chr. 901; Erl. 96, 23. Under hǽþenra hyrda gewealdum, Exon. Th. 44, 19; Cri. 705. Eáþmódgiaþ eów sylfe under ðære mihte Godes handa, Blickl. Homl. 99, 3. Óðer ti is seó ðe wæs under ǽ; seó ðridde ... is gecweden under Godes gife, Homl. Th. i. 312, 31. Cild ic eom under gyrde (sub virga ) drohtniende, Coll. Monast. Th. 34, 21. b. marking protection, shelter Under mundbyr[d]e sub pretextu, Wrt. Voc. ii. 79, 84: 84, 15. Under wealla hleó, Cd. Th. 259, 13; Dan. 691. c. marking pretence Under intingan sub obtentu (Mk. 12, 40), Wrt. Voc. ii. 73, 43. d. marking exposure, suffering Hú se mánscaða under fǽrgripum gefaran wolde, Beo. Th. 1480; B. 738. Under stormum, Exon. Th. 476, 21; Ruin. 11. Fela ðæs ðe hé ádreág under níðgysta nearwum clommum, 134, 21; Gú. 511. Under Godes egsan, 146, 2; Gú. 703. e. marking rank, degree Under hire selfre hió, bíþ ðonne, ðonne heó lufaþ ðás eorþlícan þing, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 132, 17. f. marking circumstances or conditions under, among, or during which something takes place Be ðam mere ðe bið húsl forboden and under þam (interim) forðfærð, L. Ecg. P. i. 13, tit.; Th. ii. 170, 25: interea, 13; Th. ii. 178, 15: Chr. 876; Erl. 78, 12: 1046; Erl. 173, 5. Hé him gehét ðæt hé his ríce wið hiene dǽlan wolde and hiene under ðæm ofslóg Titum, mox ut in societatem regni adsumpsit, occidit, Ors. 2, 2; Swt. 66, 12. Under ðæm ðe hé him onwinnende wæs while he was warring upon them, 1, 2; Swt. 30, 5. Under ðæm gewinne hié genámon friþ in the course of the struggle they made peace; pace armis quaesita, 1, 10; Sat. 46, 7. Swá wæs ðæt hié under ðære sibbe tó ðære mǽstan sace becóme, 4, 7; Swt. 182, 28: 4, 12; Swt. 210, 10: Chr. 865; Erl. 70, 33. Wé sceolan under ðæm feówerte[g]oþan geríme syllan ðone teóþan dǽl úre worldspéda we must during that forty days give the tithe of our worldly wealth, Blickl. Homl. 35, 18. (g) marking manner :-- Under earhfære bannan tó beadwe to summon to war by sending round an arrow (v. Grmm. R. A. 162), Elen. Kmbl. 87; El. 44. II. with acc., 1. local, where motion is expressed or implied, a. where one object comes to have another vertically above it Ne eom ic wyrðe ðæt ðú gá under míne þecene, Lk. Skt. 7, 6. Sume steorran gewítaþ under ða sǽ, Bt. 39, 3; Fox 214, 26. Stefn in becom under hárne stán, Beo. Th. 5100; B. 2553. Hió ðæt líc ætbær under firgenstreám, 4263; B. 2128. Ðá námon hig ánne stán and lédon under hine, Ex. 17, 12. Lǽd under earce bond eaforan ðíne, Cd. Th. 80, 23; Gen. 1333. Under helm drepen biteran strǽle, Beo. Th. 3495; B. 1745. ¶ Combined with on :-- Lecgan uppan ðone stán and on under, Lchdm. iii. 38, 18. b. where one object comes to the lower part of another Weorod eodon unblíðe under Earna næs wundur sceáwian; fundon on sande sáwulleásne ðone ðe him hringas geaf, Beo. Th. 6055; B. 3031. c. where one object comes to be surrounded, covered, shut in, etc. by another Hé gelǽdde brýd under burhlocan, Cd. Th. 153, 12; Gen. 2537: Andr. Kmbl. 1879; An. 942. Under heolstorhofu hreósan, Elen. Kmbl. 1524; El. 764. In under eoderas, Beo. Th. 2068; B. 1037: Cd. Th. 147, 25; Gen. 2445. Under sceát, 124, 17; Gen. 2064: Exon. Th. 436, 21; Rä. 55, 4. d. where extension under a surface is implied God under roderas feng wolde ðæt eorðe geseted wurde woruldsceafte, Cd. Th, 6, 33; Gen. 98: 71, 5; Gen. 1166. Under heofenes hwealf, Beo. Th. 1156; B. 576: 4033; B. 2015. Under swegles begong, 1724; B. 860: 3550; B. 1773: An. 415; An. 208. Siððan ǽfenleóht under heofenes hádor beholen weorþeþ after the evening light has died out everywhere beneath the sky, Beo. Th. 832; B. 414. 2. figurative, a. marking subordination, subjection, rule, etc Under hand hǽðenum déman in subjection to a heathen ruler, Cd. Th. 220, 14; Dan. 71. Gewát him Abraham under Abimelech ǽhte lǽdan, 158, 22; Gen. 2621. Under ánes meaht ealle forlǽtan, Exon. Th. 294, 30; Crä. 23. Hí wǽran geseald under sweordes hand tradentur in manus gladii, Ps. Th. 62, 8. b. marking exposure, suffering Se eów in hæft bedráf, under nearowe clom, Exon. Th. 138, 2; Gú. 570. c. in various other senses Ne þurfon gé wénan ðæt gé ðæt orceápe sellon, ðæt gé under Drihtises borh syllaþ, Blickl. Homl. 41, 13. Hí him his forwierndon and hit under ðæt ládedon for ðon ðe hé æt ðæm óþrum cirre sige næfde they refused him the triumph, and sheltered themselves under the excuse, that he had not on the other occasion been victorious, Ors. 5, 2; Swt. 216, 31. Under monnes híw in human form, Exon. Th. 144, 22; Gú. 682. Ne swerigen gé nǽfre under (cf. þurh, Ex. 23, 13) hǽðene godas, L. Alf. 48; Th. i. 54, 23. Se king swór under God ǽlmihtine and under ealle hálgan ðártó, Chart. Th. 340, 2. Symle byð under dæg and niht feówer and xxtlg tída, Lchdm, iii. 260, 12. Ðú áhst tó fyllene ðíne seofen tídsangas under dæg and niht, Wulfst. 290, 18. III. adverbial; see also the compound forms given below. 1. where one object has another vertically above it Án treów ðæt mæge .xxx. swína under gestandan a tree so big that thirty swine can stand beneath, L. In. 44; Th. i. 130, 3. His hors wearð under ofscoten his horse was killed under him, Chr. 1079; Erl. 216, 25. Sume crupon under some crept beneath, 1083; Erl. 217, 22. Hé hét fýr under bétan, Homl. Th. i. 4, 393. Ðǽr ðæs Hǽlendes fótlástas syndon under, Shrn. 81, 29. 2. where relative height is marked, below, beneath Hé funde wynleásne wudu, wæter under stód, Beo. Th. 2837; B. 1416. 3. down as opposed to up Wið ðone ðe him mete under ne gewunige if his food do not remain down, Lchdm. ii. 190, 1: 198, 23. [Goth. undar: O. Sax. undar: O. Frs. under: O. H. Ger. untar: Icel. undir.] v. þǽr-under.
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