wer
Morphological Analysis
Wordclass: Noun
Gender: Masculine
Related §§ in Wright's OE Grammar:
In the OE text, the length is:indicated by acute accentsindicated by macronsnot indicated.
wer
and were, es; m. [The word seems to be interchangeable with wer-gild (q. v.), e. g. Gif hé geþeó ðæt hé hæbbe híwisc landes . . . þonne bið his wergild .cxx. sciłł.; and gif hé ne geþeó búton tó healfre híde, þonne sí his wer (were, v. l. ) .lxxx. sciłł., L. Wg. 7; Th. i. 186, 14. Wergildes (v. l. weres) . . . Se wer, 1; Th. i. 186, 3, 4. Bið cynges ánfeald wergild .vi. þegna wer (wergyld, v. l.), L. M. L.; Th. i. 190, 4.] The price set upon a man according to his degree :-- Be fullan were, sý swá boren swá hé sý, L. Edm. S. 1; Th. i. 248, 4. Twelfhyndes mannes wer is twelf hund scyllinga. Twyhyndes mannes wer is twá hund sciłł. . . . Eal man sceal æt cyrliscum were be ðære mǽðe dón ðe him tó gebyreþ, swá wé be twelfhyndum tealdan, L. E. G. 13; Th. i. 174, 13-14, 176, 3. Gif wylisc mon hæbbe híde londes, his wer bið. cxx. sciłł.; gif hé hæbbe healfe, .lxxx. sciłł.; gif hé nǽnig hæbbe, .lx. scillinga, L. In. 32; Th. i. 122, 9 (cf. Wealh, gif hé hafaþ fíf hýda, hé bið syxhynde, 24; Th. i. 118, 10. Wealh gafolgelda, .cxx. sciłł.; his sunu, .c.; ðeówne, .lx.; somhwelcne, fíftegum, 22; Th. i. 118, 3). I. when a person was wrongfully (for other cases v. ǽ-gilde) slain, the wer of the slain man could be claimed from the slayer (cf. wergild, I.), who was bound to furnish security for the payment, and the date for the first instalment of such payment was fixed. According to a law of Cnut the slain man must have been in a hundred and in a tithing to make the claim for the wer valid Gif man ofslægen weorðe, gylde hine man swá hé geboren sý. And riht is ðæt se slaga, siþþan hé weres beweddod hæbbe, finde ðǽrtó wærborh . . . be ðam ðe ðǽrto gebyrige; ðæt is æt twelfhyndum were gebyriaþ twelf men tó werborge, .viii. fæderemmǽgðe, and .iiii. médrenmǽgðe. Ðonne ðæt gedón sý, ðonne rǽre man cyninges munde. (Then at intervals of twenty-one days healsfang, manbót, fyhtwíte respectively were to be paid.) Ðæs (the payment of fyhtwíte) on .xxi. nihtan ðæs weres ðæt frumgyld, and swá forð ðæt forgolden sý on ðam fyrste ðe witan gerǽden, L. E. G. 13; Th. i. 174, 15-29. Be fǽhðe. Ǽrest æfter folcrihte slaga sceal his forspecan on hand syllan, and se forspeca mágum, ðæt se slaga wille bétan wið mǽgðe. Ðonne syþþan gebyreþ ðæt man sylle ðæs slagan forspecan on hand, ðæt se slaga móte mid griðe nýr and sylf wæres weddian. (The proceedings are then as in the preceding extract, with the exception that fyhtwíte is not mentioned; so that the first payment of wer is made twenty-one days earlier ), L. Edm. S. 7; Th. i. 250, 12-21. Wé wyllaþ ðæt ǽlc freó man beó on hundrede and on teóðunge gebróht ðe láde wyrðe beón wylle oþþe weres wyrðe, gif hine hwá áfylle ofer .xii. wintre, L. C. S. 20; Th. i. 386, 21. Be swá ofslægenes monnes were. Gif mon ðæs ofslægenan weres bidde, L. In. 21; Th. i. 116, 3-4. Gif mon twyhyndne mon unsynnigne mid hlóðe ofsleá, gielde se ðæs sleges andetta sié wer . . . Gif hit sié syxhynde . . . se slaga wer . . . Gif hé sié twelfhynde . . . se slaga wer . . . Gif hlóð ðis gedó . . . ealle forgielden ðone wer gemǽmumhondum, L. Alf. pol. 29-31; Th. i. 80, 6-17: 36; Th. i. 84, 13, 14. Gif mon beforan cyninges ealdormen on gemóte gefeohte, béte wer and wíte swá hit ryht sié, and beforan ðám .cxx. sciłł. ðam ealdormen tó wíte, 38; Th. i. 86, 14. I a. of those who were concerned in the receiving of the wer the following passages speak; see also wer-gild, I a :-- Se wer (a king's gebiraþ mágum, L. Wg. 1; Th. i. 186, 4: L.M.L.; Th. i. 190, 8. Gif mon elþeódigne ofsleá, se cyning áh twǽdne dǽl weres, þriddan dǽl sunu oþþe mǽgas. Gif hé mǽgleás sié, healf kyningc, healf se gesíð, L. In. 23; Th. i. 116, 15. Se ðe dearnenga bearn gestriéneþ and gehileþ, náh se his deáðes wer, ac his hláford and se cyning, 27; Th. i 120, 3. Se forspeca sceal mágum on hand syllan, ðæt se slaga wille bétan wið mǽgðe, L. Edm. S. 7; Th. i. 250, 15. I b. those concerned in the payment of the wer are referred to in the following :-- Gif fædrenmǽga mǽgleás mon gefeohte and mon ofsleá, and ðonne gif hé médrenmǽgas hæbbe, gielden ða ðæs weres þriddan dæl ða gegyldan, for þriddan dǽl hé fleó, L. Alf. pol. 27; Th. i. 78, 22. I c. of the form in which payment might be made see the following;; II. in cases other than death the whole or part of the injured person's wer could be claimed Gif se hund má (more than three) misdǽda gewyrce, and hé (the owner hine hæbbe, béte be fullan were, L. Alf. pol. 23; Th. i. 78, 7. Gif man æt unlagum man bewǽpnige... and gif hine man gebinde, forgilde be healfan were, L. C. S. 61; Th. i. 408, 20. III. in case of certain crimes the wer of the criminal was exacted as a penalty; see also wer-gild, II. Æt nánum bótwyrðum gylte ne forwyrce man máre ðdonne his wer, L. Edg. ii. 2; Th. i. 266, 13. Gif mon sié wertyhtlan betogen... bíde mon... óþ ðæt se wer gegolden sié, L. In. 71,; Th. i. 148, 4. Gif hwá æt þeófe médsceatt nime, and óðres ryht áfylle, beó hé his weres scyldig, L. Ath. i. 17; Th. i. 208, 16. Gif hwá flýman feormige, sý hé his weres scyldig, bútan hé hine ládian durre be ðæs flýman were, ðæt hé hine flýman nyste, 20; Th. i. 210, 12. Gielde hé hine (the fugitive ) his ágenum were, L. In. 30; Th. i. 122, 1. Gif hwá ǽnigra godcundra gerihta forwyrne... and gif hé wigie and man gewundie, beó his weres scyldig, L. E. G. 6; Th. i. 170, 9. Gif hwá cristendóm wyrde oþþe hǽðendóm weorðige, wordes oþþe weorces, gylde swá wer swá wíte swá lahslitte, L. E. G. 2; Th. i. 168, 2: L. Eth. v. 31; Th. i. 312, 10. Ðá bæd Byrhferð ealdormann Æðelstán his we for ðam témbyrste, Chart. Th. 207, 3. III a. to whom, and by whom, the wer was paid is seen in the following :-- Gif hé fúl wurðe béte ðam hláforde his were... Gif hé út hleápe,... gilde se borh ðam hláforde his were (if the lord had a share in the escape, the wer went to the king: Fó se cyning tó ðam were)... Gif hé (a lord's man) út óðhleápe, gylde se hláford ðæs mannes were ðam cyninge... Gif him (the lord ) seó lád byrste, gilde ðam cynge his were, L. Eth. i. 1; Th. i. 280, 21-282, 14: L. C. S. 30; Th. i. 394, 7-23. Beó hé his weres scyldig wið ðone cyning, and gif hé hit eft wyrde, gylde tuwa his were, L. C. S. 84; Th. i. 422, 10. Ðæt hé (manslaga binnon ciricwágum) his ágenne wer gesylle ðam cyninge and Criste, L. Eth. ix. 2; Th. i. 340, 12. Ic ágife ðínne wer ðam cynge, Chart. Th. 207, 11, 33: 208, 28. III b. the payment of the wer is in some cases an alternative; see also wer-gild, II a :-- Gif þeóf sié gefongen, swelte hé deáðe, oþþe his líf be his were man áliése, L. In. 12; Th. i. 110, 8. Sý hé (a false accuser ) his tungan scylding, búton hé hine mid his were forgilde, L. C. S. 16; Th. i. 384, 26: L. Alf. pol. 32; Th. i. 82, 2. IV. the wer served as a standard by which other matters might be regulated; se also wer-gild, III. Cyninges geneát, gif his wer bið twelf hund sciłł., hé mót swerian for syxtig hída, L. In. 19; Th. i. 114, 10. Bútan hé hine ládian durre be ðæs flýman were, L. Ath. i. 20; Th. i. 210, 13. Be his ágnum were geládige hé hine, L. In. 30; Th. i. 120, 18. Hé hine be his were geswicne, 15; Th. i. 112, 3. Æt twyhyndum were mon sceal sellan tó monbó .xxx. sciłł.; æt .vi. hyndum, .lxxx. sciłł.; æt twelfyndum, .cxx. sciłł, 70; Th. i. 146, 13. Gielden ealle án wíte, swá tó ðam were belimpe, L. Alf. pol. 31; Th. i. 80, 18. Gif hé (a thief ) ða hand lésan wille,... gelde swá tó his were belimpe, 6; Th. i. 66, 6. Weaxe sió bót be ðam were, 11; Th. i. 70, 2: L. In. 76; Th. i. 15, 15 v. þegen-wer, wer-gild.
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