healdan
Morphological Analysis
Wordclass: Verb
This might be just a supplemental entry adding to an entry in the Main Volume.
Related §§ in Wright's OE Grammar:
§5,
§7,
In the OE text, the length is:indicated by acute accentsindicated by macronsnot indicated.
healdan
Add: A. trans. I. to keep watch over, keep in charge. 1. to keep a flock (lit. or fig. ), sheep, swine, &c. Beóceorle . . . gif hé gafolheorde healt, Ll. Th. i. 434, 36. Ǽhteswáne ðe inheorde healt, 436, 22. Ne healde gé ðá heorde mid suelcum eorneste suelce hirdas scoldon, Past. 89, 13. Abel ǽhte heóld fæder on fultum (fuit Abel pastor ovium, Gen. 4, 2), Gen. 973. Nyste hé hwá hí (four sheep ) heólde, Gr. D. 206, 11. Se hyrde . . . þe nele þá heorde þe hé healdan sceal bewerian, Ll. Th. i. 374, 23. 2. of persons in positions of authority or trust, to watch over, keep, govern, rule, the people, places or things under their authority or care, a. the head of a family or clan Him on láste heóld land and yrfe Malalehel, Gen. 1167. Heóld mága yrfe, 1218. Heóld leódgeard, 1224 (cf. Enoch . . . hyrde wæs heáfodmága, 1200). b. a king Crístes gespelian crístendóm and cynedóm healdað and wealdað, Ll. Th. i. 350, 4. Ic (Beowulf ) heóld þás leóde fíftig wiiitra, B. 2732. Offa wísdóme heóld éðel sínne, 1959. Nabochodonossor weardode wíde ríce, heóld hæleða gestreón and þá heán burh, Dan. 666. ¶ used absolutely :-- Eall folc geceás Eádward tó cynge, healde þá hwíle þe him God unne, Chr. 1041 ; P. 163, 10. (b α) of superhuman rulers :-- Tó þám þe wera gástum wealdeð and healdeð, Ps. Th. 75, 9: Rä. 41, 5. Satan helle forð healdan sceolde, gýman þæs grundes, Gen. 348. c. a high official Sum ríce geréfa eard weardode, in þǽre ceastre heóld hordgestreón, Jul. 22. Þá máþmhyrdas ðe feoh heóldon, Bt. 27, 4 ; F. 100, 14. Ic beóde eallum mínum geréfum . . . hý mín folc rihtlíce healdan, Cht. E. 230, 29. Ðá munecas beádon þone abbod hé sceolde healdan hí rihtlíce, Chr. 1083; P. 214, 19. Hé befæste þá burg Æþeréde aldormen tó haldonne, 886; P. 80, 13. d. of a lord's relation to his man Ic wille beón N. hold . . . wið þám þe hé mé healde swá ic earnian wille, Ll. Th. i. 178, 7. e. a legal guardian or keeper of property, one legally responsible for the safety of a thing Healden þá mǽgas þone frumstól oþ þæt þæt bearn gewintrod sié, Ll. Th. i. 126, 6. Hig .xi. healdan þǽre hyndene feoh, 232, 3. Hié hit (a sword) gesund ágifon . . . búton hiora hwæðer ǽr þingode hé hit ángylde healdan (be responsible for it while in his keeping ) ne þorfte, Ll. Th. i. 74, 12. Man sumne berigean geselle his feoh tó healdenne oþ þæt hé x. wintra sié, 30, 5. Tó healdenne vel ædfæst, tǽht vel becwyddod depositum, Wrt. Voc. i. 21, 4. 3. in a more general sense, to keep, guard, be a guardian of. a. the object a person Sé ðe healdeð þé qui custodit te, Ps. Th. 120, 3. Englas healdað háligra feorh, Gú. 61. Healdað hine nihta gehwylce twá hund wearda, Sal. 259. Hé þá geogoðe wile árum healdan, B. 1182. ¶ of a bird and its eggs: Mec (a cuckoo ) . . . heóld and freoðode, Rä. 10, 5. (a α) the subject a thing :-- Dæg and niht þás werþeóda weardum healdað, An. 101. b. the object a place or thing Se weard þæt mǽre líf healdeð, Gen. 951. Weard goldmáðmas heóld, B. 2414. Sume heaðoreáf heóldon, 401. Weard Scyldinga sé þe holmclifu healdan scolde, 230. Sceótend þá þæt hornreced healdan scoldon, 704. Neorxna wang and lífes treó légene sweorde healdan, El. 758. Gif ðú énigne gódne heorde hæbbe þe wel cunne healdan þæt þæt ðú gestreóne and him befæste, Solil. H. 3, 13: 17. Tó healdenne, 4, 2. 4. in a hostile sense, to watch, keep under observation Sittende heóldun hine sedentes servabant eum, Mt. R. L. 27, 36. Haldende ðe Hǽlend custodientes Iesum, 27, 54. ¶ used absolutely :-- Gé habbað heordrǽdenne: farað and healdaþ, Mt. 27, 65. 5. to defend against attack, preserve from injury. a. the object a person Ic þé friðe healde þæt þé ne móton mángeníðlan gáste gesceððan, An. 917: 1434. Hé (God ) mé friðe healdeð . . . ne gé mé láðes wiht gedón mótun, Gú. 281. Wit þé friðe healdað and mundbyrde, Gen. 2528. Þá englas sceldað and healdað ealle hálige sáwla, Bl. H. 11, 27. Heald mé herewǽpnum wið unholdum, Ps. Ben. 34, 3. Þæt hé þá weáláfe heólde þæt ǽnig mon wordum ne weorcum wǽre ne brǽce, B. 1099. b. the object a place or thing Míne þincg ic heóld nú nigon geár wið ealle hýnða, Hml. S. 9, 42. Æt niéhstan wæs nán tó gedále, . . . þá se egorhere eorðan túddor eall ácwealde, búton þæt earcebord heóld heofona freá, Gen. 1404. His templ healdan wið þá hǽðenan, Hml. S. 25, 338. Wið ælfylcum éðelstólas healdan, B. 2372. Wið feónda gehwone flotan eówerne healdan, 296. II. to hold. 1. to lay hold on, take Ah ne haldas (genimeð, R., hú ne nymð hé, W. S.) and gehebbes ðá ilco nonne tenebit el levabit eam?, Mt. L. 12, 11. (1 a) in a hostile sense, to take prisoner, arrest :-- Haldað (genimeð, R., nimað, W. S.) hine tenete eum, 26, 48. Haldas, Mk. L. 14, 44. Hé héht folcgesíþas healdon þone hererinc . . . hé hine inne héht on carcerne [bringan], Met. 1, 71. Eódon tó haldanne hine ( hí hine námon, W. S. ), Mk. L. R. 3, 21. Sóhton hine tó haldanne ( hine genóman, R.), Mt. L. 21, 46. 2. to have hold of, prevent from escaping. a. the subject a person Hé heóld hine tó fæste, B. 788. b. the subject a thing Ðæt sint þá þreó anceras þe þæt scyp healdað ongemang ðám brógan þára ýða, Solil. H. 29, 17. Ðone streng þæt ðæt scyp healdan sceal, 22, 17. III. to hold, keep from falling, 1. the subject a person. a. to hold in or with the hand, arm, &c. Haldas hearpas and fato tenentes citharas et phialas, Mt. p. 10, 2. Healdende palmtwigu on heora handum, Hml. Th. i. 538, 17. b. to hold up by supports Se scyppend þás eorðan wreðstuðum and þás world healdeð, Rä. 41, 2. 2. the subject a thing þæt hnesce wæter hæbbe flór on þǽre fæstan eorðan, for þám þe hit ne mæg on him selfum gestandan. Ac seó eorþe hit helt (hilt, Met. 20, 95), Bt. 33, 4; F. 130, 5. Seó eorþe on nánum þinge ne stent, ne nán*-*wuht eorþlices hí ne healt hió ne síge, 37. Healdeð, Met. 20, 166. Hé seah hú þá stánbogan eorðreced innon healde, B. 2719. IV. to maintain, support, uphold, 1. the subject a person, a. the object a person Þá hwíle þe gé mé rihtlíce healdað, Cht. E. 230, 6. Heóld mec and hæfde Hréðel cyning, geaf mé sinc and symbel, B. 2430. Nó hí findan meahton æt þám æþelinge þæt hé Heardréde hláford wǽre, . . .hwæþre hé hine on folce freóndlárum heóld, 2377. Hine Metod heóld wilna wæstmum, Gen. 1947. Gif hwá þæne friðleásan man healde oþþe feormige, Ll. Th. i. 384, 7: 410, 18. (a α) to support life :-- Þú of foldan fódder neátum lǽtest álǽdan, on þǽm hí líf healdað, Ps. Th. 103, 13. b. the object a thing Þæt hé healde his mǽga rǽd that he uphold what is to the advantage of his kinsmen, Sal. 491. Sǽte haldan (to keep in repair ), Ll. Th. i. 432, 15. 2. the subject a thing Mé mára dǽl in gǽstgerýnum wunað, sé mé wraðe healdeð, Gú 220. V. to hold and control, manage Dryhten . . . scyreð and scrífeð and gesceapo healdeð, Vy. 66: Gen. 2827. Eal þú hit geþyldum healdest, mægen mid módes snyttrum, B. 1705. Þá þe unwíse heora heortan hige healdað mid dysige insipientes corde, Ps. Th. 75, 4. V a. reflex. to hold, bear or conduct oneself, to behave :-- Wǽre þú tódæg beswuncgen ? Ic næs, for þám wærlice ic mé heóld (tenui ), Coll. M 34, 9. Loth þǽre monwísan fleáh, and hine fægre heóld, Gen. 1941. Eów manaþ eówer láreów þæt gé healdan eów selfe ǽnlíce, Coll. M. 35, 37. Gif hé hine heólde swá swá hé sceolde, Ll. Th. i. 192, 15. Dryhten hine ðreáde for his ǽrgedónan weorcum, ǽr ðǽm ðe hé him sǽde hú hé hine fórð healden sceolde Dominus facta ejus corripuit, nec tamen illico, quae essent facienda, monstravit, Past. 443, 28. VI. to handle, treat, deal with. 1. a person Is rihtlic úre ǽlc óðerne healde mid rihte, Ll. Th. i. 336, 10. 2. a subject Gode þanc þæs dǽles þe ic wót. Ic wille þis nú smeigan and haldan swá ic geornost mæg ista diligenter cauteque tractabo, Solil. H. 53, 10. VII. to hold, contain within itself Hit eorðe oninnan hire heóld, Met. 29, 55. VII a. to be capable of containing a certain quantity :-- Wæterfatu healdende ǽnlípige twyfealde gemetu oððe þryfealde (hydriae capientes singuli metretas binas uel ternas, Jn. 2, 6), Hml. Th. ii. 56, 20. VIII. to hold as owner or as tenant, to have possession or enjoyment of. 1. the subject a person Þín ágen bearn frætwa healdeð, þonne þín flǽsc ligeð, Gen 2188. Wé wunian móton grimme grundas; God seolfa him ríce healdeð, Sat. 260. Ofer þan heofonfugelas healdað eardas super ea volucres coeli habitabunt, Ps. Th. 103, 11. Þǽr sylfǽtan eard weardigað, éðel healdað, An. 176. Grendel móras heóld, B. 103. Þá þe heóldon hygeþancum hæleða rǽdas, El. 156. Ælfgifu sǽte on Winceastre mid þæs cynges húscarlum, and heóldan ealle West-Seaxan him tó handa, Chr. 1036; P. 161, 4. Hí cuǽdon þæt hié þæt tó his honda healdan sceoldon, Chr. 887; P. 80, 21. Hú mæg hé gástlicne wæstm habban and healdan?, Bl. H. 55, 10. Þeáh mé genóh cume, ne fagnige ic hys swíðe, . . . ne máran getilige tó haldænne, Solil. H. 35, 17. Heó Myrcna anweald mid rihthláforddóme haldende wæs, Chr. 918; P. 105, 28. 2. the subject a thing Hald þú nú, hrúse, nú hæleð ne móston, eorla ǽhte, B. 2247. Hí forléton eorla gestreón eorðan healdan 3167. VIII a. to hold, occupy an office, a position :-- Sé ðe scíre healt (the reeve ), Angl. ix. 265, 6. Hé heóld þridde healf geár bísdóm, Chr. 931; P. 106, 2. Tó tácne þæt mon endebyrdlíce ðone biscepdóm halde (healde, v. l. ), Past. 52, 22. Sé þe scíre healde, Ll. Th. i. 434, 33. Rómáne ládteówas gesetton, þe hié consulas héton, heora ríce heólde án geár án monn, Ors. 2, 2 ; S. 68, 3. Láreówdóm healdan, Hml. Th. ii. 320, 12. Ealdorscype, ealdordóm healdan primatum tenere, Coll. M. 30, 17, 23. VIII b. to hold, keep forcibly against an adversary :-- Hig fuhton fíf dagas, . . . ac hig þá duru heóldon, Fin. 42. Hé frægn . . . hwá þá duru heólde, 23. Wǽron innan þám castele manige þe hine healdon woldan ongeán þone cyng, Chr. 1087; P. 224, 5. Hé his ealdormen hæfde beboden þá clúsan tó healdanne, Ors. 6, 36; S. 292, 27. VIII c. to remain in, retain possession of :-- Gif þú færst tó þǽre winstran hælfe, ic healde (habebo ) þá swíðran healfe, Gen. 13, 9. Hié hiera heres þone mǽstan dǽl hám sendon mid hiora herehýþe, and þone óþerne dǽl þǽr léton þæt lond tó healdanne, Ors. 1, 10; S. 46, 22. IX. to retain, detain, not to let go, not to lose. 1. the object a person. a. to keep, not to abandon Gif hwá his rihtǽwe forlǽte . . . Ac healde gehwá mid riht his ǽwe, Ll. Th. ii. 300, 26. b. to detain as prisoner, keep in prison Gif cirican fáh mon geierne . . . Gif híwan hiora cirican þearfe hæbben, healde hine mon on óðrum ærne, Ll. Th. i. 64, 14. Ne dýde man nǽfre on Sunnandæges freólse ánigne forwyrhtne, ac wylde and healde se freólsdæg ágán sié, 172, 14: 402, 12. 'Hát hí healdan þý lǽs ðe hí fleámes cépon.' Ðá andwyrde se heretoga: ' Ic háte healdan hí and eów, oð þæt heora sagu áfandod sý,' Hml. Th. ii. 484, 1-3. 2. the object a thing, material or non-material Hé woruldwelan lufað and hielt (hilt, v. l.) eas diligendo retinet, Past. 331, 10. Þá welan beóþ leóftǽlran þonne þonne hié mon selþ þonne hié beón þonne hí mon gadraþ and healt (hilt, v. l. ), Bt. 13; F. 38, 15. Þá ðe word healdað qui uerbum retinent, Lk. 8, 15. Hé gife, þe him God sealde, heóld, B. 2183. Hald (heald, v. l. ) ðíne ælmessan, ðý lǽs ðú hié forweorpe, Past. 324, 3. Þæt hé healde Godes miltse, Sal. 491. Gehealdsum on ðǽm ðe hé healdan scyle oððe dǽlan, Past. 149, 19. Nis nán gesceaft ðe hé tiohhige hió scyle winnan wiþ hire Scippendes willan, gif hió hire gecynd healdan wile nihil est, quod naturam servans, Deo contraire conetur, Bt. 35, 4; F. 160, 23 : 34, 12; F. 152, 20: 36, 6; F. 182, 22. X. to keep for use when needed, keep in store: — Hé him éce leán healdeð on heofonum, Cri. 1681. X a. with extension or complement, to keep in a place, condition, relation, &c. Þú hí gaderast and heltst on þínum horde, Bt. 14, 2; F. 44, 4. Hé feora gehwilc healdeð in hǽlo, Gú. 368. Hé healdeð mé on heaðore, Rä. 21, 13. Þá þe þé on heora lufan healdað diligentes te, Ps. Th. 121, 6. Hí hýdað heáhgestreón, healdað on fæstenne, Sol. 317. Gif hit unwitan ǽnige hwíle healdað bútan hæftum, hit þurh hróf wadeð, 411. Heald mé on þínre sóðfæstnesse, Ps. Th. 142, 1. Þá word on his heortan habban and healdan, Bl. H. 55, 8. X b. reflex. to keep oneself, remain: — Heóld hyne syððan fyr and fæstor sé þǽm feónde ætwand, B. 142. Wíf ic lǽrde hié heora weras lufedan . . . ; and ic lǽrde weras hié be him ánum getreówlíce hié heóldan, Bl. H. 185, 24. X c. to continue to occupy, not to leave :-- Æsc byð stíð on staðule, stede rihte hylt, Rún. 26. Hí heora ryne healdað, stówe gestefnde, Gen. 159. XI. to hold, keep together, without interruption. 1. to hold together a number of people, hold a meeting, court, &c. Hú mon ðæt hundred haldan sceal. Ǽrest hí heó gegaderian á ymb feówer wucan, Ll. Th. i. 258, 3. 2. to keep in force or operation, continue a practice, habit, arrangement, &c. Ic healde míne wísan, Rä. 9, 4. Sió gesomnung ðǽre hálgan ciricean ðurh ondetnesse hielt (hilt, v. l. ) ðá gewitnesse ðǽre sóðfæsðnesse, Past. 367, 6. Æt þám unþeáwe þe dysige men on ungewunan healdað, Wlfst. 305, 9. Hé þæt gerýne þǽre hálgan fulwihte mid gódum dǽdum heóld and fullade, Bl. H. 213, 16. Hié þæt heóldun mid micelre unsibbe, Chr. 887 ; P. 80, 26. Ic áwrítan hét monege þára þe úre foregengan heóldon (many laws that were in force with our predecessors) . . . and manege . . . ic áwearp . . . and on óðre wísan bebeád tó healdenne (I ordered that other laws should be in force ), Ll. Th. i. 58, 17-20. Ðeáw healdan, 440, 22. Hwylce steóre hý be þan healdan willað, 276, 28. Ǽlc þára þe healdan wile hálige þeáwas, Gen. 1531: Ll. Th. ii. 300, 29. 3. to maintain a condition, relation, &c., keep company, silence, &c. Hié healdað má geférrǽdenne and efnlícnesse ðonne ealdordóm wið ðá yfelan, Past. 123, 2. Ðyllicne gebróðorscipe hié heóldon him betweónum, Ors. 3, 11; S. 152, 28. Hié on symbel wið Rómánum sibbe heóldon, 4, 8 ; S. 186, 3. Hié hié selfe nídað tó healdonne swígean, Past. 271, 16. 4. to perform a function, office, &c., keep watch Eorl ofer óðrum healdeð heáfodwearde, B. 2909. Ic ǽgwearde heóld, 241. Sceaft nytte heóld, 3118. Þæt gé wæccende wið hettendra hildewóman wearde healden, Jul. 664. Wið þám fǽrscyte wearde healdan, Cri. 767. Wið wráð werod wearde healdan, B. 319. 5. to keep a day, festival, ceremonial observance, &c. Ðes man restedæg ne healt, Jn. 9, 16. On þǽre stówe þe wé nú bissextun healdað, Angl. viii. 306, 41. Tódál þǽra metta wé ná ne healdaþ . . . þá bígengu þæs níwan mónan wé ná ne healdaþ, An. Ox. 40, 26, 34. Healde man ǽlces Sunnandæges freólsunga fram nóntíde þæs Sæternesdæges oþ þæs Mónandæges líhtinge . . . and man ǽlc beboden fæsten healde, Ll. Th. i. 264, 18-22 : 320, 10. Háligra tíd þá man healdan sceal, Men. 229. XII. to keep unbroken, inviolate. 1. not to pass a limit Healdeð georne mere gemǽre, Sch. 52. Mearce healdan, Met. 11, 73. 2. to keep a command, law, pledge, promise, &c. Word his ic haldo, Jn. L. R. 8, 55. Treów þú wið rodora weard healdest, Gen. 2119. Gif gé lufiað mé, healdað míne beboda: sé þe lufað mé healt míne sprǽce, Ælfc. T. Grn. 14, 31. Hylt, Ps. Th. 18, 10. Hí swincað wið synnum, healdað sóð and riht, Gú. 782. Hé wǽre wið þec heóld, El. 824. Hí hyra þeódnes wordum and weorcum willan heóldon, Cri. 1237. Hí gódne friþ heóldon, Chr. 877 ; P. 74, 21. Heald forð tela níwe sibbe, B. 948. Hé hí stearclíce healde eos artissime constringat, Chrd. 54, 26. te Godes þeówas hiora ryhtregol on ryht healdan, Ll. Th. i. 102, 15. Þæt ic ǽ þíne heólde and lǽste, Ps. Th. 118, 61. Hwæt hié wyrcean and healdan scoldon, Past. 103, 3. Uton healdan wedd and frið, Ll. Th. i. 238, 24. Clǽnnysse healdan to keep the vow of chastity, 306, 20. XIII. to constrain, compel Gif gehádod man hine forwyrce mid deáðscylde, gewilde hine man and healde tó biscopes dóme, Ll. Th. i. 168, 23 : 402, 1. XIV. to keep back from action, restrain, stop Hí heóldon heora eáran (continuerunt aures suas, Acts 7, 57), Hml. Th. i. 46, 33. Heald þíne handa, Hml. S. 13. 256. Nǽnig monn mæhte hine temma ł halda (domare), Mk. L. 5, 4. XIV a. reflex, to restrain oneself, refrain :-- Healde hine ðæt hine his ágen geðanc ne biswíce, Past. 57, 21. Healde hine ðæt hé ne cnytte ðæt underfongne feoh on ðǽm swátlíne, 59, 13. wé ús healdan wiþ þá heáfodlican leahtras, Bl. H. 37, 2. Gif hié hié nyllað healdan wið ðǽm æfste, Past. 233, 17. XV. to hold in the mind. 1. to entertain, have a feeling Hió hióld heáhlufan wið hæleða brego, B. 1954. Hí gefeán healdað, Ph. 391. Þæt hé gástlice lufe healde, Leás. 38 : Sal. 491. 2. to keep in mind, remember Hí his wísdómes hlísan healdað, Gú. 128. Þá þe Dryhtnes bibod heóldon on hreðre, Cri. 1160. 3. to hold a belief, an opinion, &c. Þá men þe Godes ríces geleáfan habbað and healdaþ, Bl. H. 55, 17. 4. to hold in esteem, regard Se bisceop þone iungan cniht deórwurðlíce heóld, Ælfc. T. Grn. 17, 8. Heó wæs sumne dǽl hæbbende of þám reáfe þæs Hǽlendes and hyt swýðe deórwyrðlíce heóld, Hml. A. 187, 180. Þí hé elcað þæt wé sceolon deórwyrðlíce healdan Godes gife, Hml. Th. i. 248, 28. 5. with object and complement or extension, to hold as, regard as Buton hiora hwæðer ǽr þingode hé hit ángylde healdan (or under IP ) ne þorfte, Ll. Th. i. 74, 12. Hié him þæt gold tó gode noldon healdan, Dan. 198. B. intrans. I. of things, to hold, remain unbroken, not to give way Weallas him (waves ) wiðre healdað, Gn. Ex. 54. II. of persons, to hold one's ground, not to give way before an adversary Gúðweard gumena héht his hereciste healdan georne, fæst fyrdgetrum, Exod. 177. III. to proceed, move on Cóm lið intó Temese, and lágon þær twá niht, and heóldon syððan tó Denmarcon, Chr. 1071; P. 206, 21. IV. with dat. of person to whom a thing is offered, and dat. of thing, to perform for a person the action suggested by the noun Hé him (the birds ) æte heóld, þonne hý him hungrige ymb hond flugon, Gú. 708. Hý hine bǽron and him bryce heóldon (they served him ), 701. Þæt se wudubeám wildeór scilde, ǽte eallum heólde (should feed them all ), swylce fuglas eác heora feorhnere on þæs beámes blédum náme, Dan. 506. Dracan þú geheówadest, héte him bysmere healdan draco quem formasti ad illudendum ei, Ps. Th. 103, 25. C. with adverbs. I. forð, to continue, go on with :-- Heóldon forð ryne eástreámas heora, Gen. 215. II. on, to go on Heóld on heáh gesceap high destiny held on its course, B. 3084. v. á-healdan, æt-healdan, mis-healdan, of-healdan, ofer-healdan, on-healdan, oþ-healdan; dreám-healdende; be-healden, full-healden, ge-healden.
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